Balancing Act: Small groups, conferring and partnerships

by Kristina Harris

The other night I was looking through the “Units of Study in Reading TCRWP”  Facebook group. A teacher had elevated their  struggle to balance the “teacher directed” components of the independent time during the Reading Workshop.  We know what kids are doing, READING!  However, the question always comes back to how many kids should a teacher aim to meet with during the Reading Workshop daily? Is there a method to the “madness”? I saw a response from someone in the group that suggested a 3,2,1 approach for direct, explicit instruction:

  • 3 kids – with one small group
  • 2 kids – with one partnership
  • 1 kid – with a reading conference

WHAT!? 6 kids? That just didn’t seem like enough kids to me.  Granted I realize it is a balancing act, I know I can meet with more than that.  So I looked back from my reading notes of the past week and decided to flip the suggestion to a 1,2,3 plan.

  • 1 small group (strategy or guided) (~4 kids)
  • 2 groups of partnerships (4 kids)
  • 3 reading conferences (3 kids)les-anderson-215208-unsplash                                         Photo by Les Anderson on Unsplash

That would give me a chance to instruct 11 kids during the independent time of Reading Workshop  and 55 over the course of the week. To me, that felt better, but  please know that this is not a science but an art.  I know there will be days that I might have 2 small  groups and no one-to-one conferences.  I’m using this as my guideline to keep me on track and accountable for my minutes. I know how cute those kindergarteners are with their stories and they can easily persuade me to be off track!

This also lead me to think about my accountability to my students.  Am I meeting with them enough? Is it fair? Is it equitable?  As I was digging through my informal data over the past 2 weeks, I wondered if I had seen everyone.  So I tallied each conference, small group and partnership conversation I had. Yikes! There were ones that I had met with numerous times (double digits) and others that had flown under the radar and I only met with once! Does it need to be equitable? Or will some students naturally need more direct instruction than others? I came to the conclusion that I must have been putting out fires first and only getting to the engaged proficient readers when I had time. I needed to change that, so that those proficient readers also had direct instruction more frequently. I also questioned if I am giving my struggling readers a chance to practice and transfer the skills and strategies independently if I’m always meeting with them.   In light of this new information, I mapped out my conferences and groups for the next few days, knowing I could still remain flexible.  I will continue to do this so that I can ensure I am meeting with my students enough, and  to be sure I have data and accountability for not only  my students, but for myself as well.

Updated with a Visual of my thinking from the comment below.

Kristina Harris has been an elementary teacher for 12 years.  She has taught primary grades and is currently working for Jeffco Public Schools as an Elementary Literacy Specialist. She is currently sharing about her co-teaching experience in a Kindergarten classroom through her blog, Teaching With Elevations.


What Does it Mean to Be Welcoming and Inclusive?

By Kendra Carpenter

Have you ever wondered if families would attend your school if they had a choice? Due to some programming changes in our district, this is a question I have been pondering lately.  To answer it, I had to identify what makes our school special. On the surface, it has always been our dual language program. For the last 13 years, we have offered a bilingual program with English and Spanish.  Since starting this program, we have watched our enrollment grow from the mid 200’s to just over 400. Currently, we are the largest elementary school in our small district. Our uniqueness due to our programming is about to end as one of our neighboring elementary schools is starting a dual language program as well.  Screen Shot 2018-04-10 at 5.33.12 AM

This led me to dig deeper into the culture of our school and really contemplate what it is that makes our culture inviting and inclusive.  Certainly the dual language aspect helps support an inviting culture. At any time, the majority of our parents know they can enter the school and immediately speak with someone in their native language.   Our office staff and classroom teachers reflect the diversity of our families. Parents have both an English and Spanish speaking point person they can turn to for questions and/or support. Although it seems simple, just greeting parents with a smile when they enter our building makes a difference. 

When I peeled back more layers, I also realized that we offer some unique events that honor the different cultures and backgrounds of our families.  Each year we start out with a family fun run called “El Grito.” This event is to celebrate independence for Latin countries around the world. Parents and the community are invited and the whole school runs/walks through the neighborhood.  We end with a huge festival of food, where our families bring in dishes that represent their home countries. All classes perform a song or dance from around the world and we have time to come together as a community. This event helps us set the tone for the year.

Another special offering is our Mother Tongue Celebration.  We invite families to share traditions about their home country through pictures, food, dance, games, etc..  Students work through stations, participating in small groups. Each year my heart is warmed watching children beam with pride as their parents present to the rest of the student body.  

We have worked hard to create a strong culture of literacy in our building.  This has taken time and a lot of hard work, but we send home books nightly in both English and Spanish for all of our students.  We continue this practice throughout the summer, opening our doors every other week so that students can come in and exchange books.  This practice is not perfect, and we still have students that do not read, but it is not due to a lack of resources in the home.

We are lucky to live in a community that offers many opportunities to participate in sports, at little to no cost.  As a school we work hard to recruit all of our students to play on the various teams. Teachers kindly volunteer their time to stay several evenings and hold sign up nights to help parents work their way through paperwork that is often not in their native language.  Once teams are formed, personal phone calls are made to let parents know what team their child is on, what nights they will practice and when games will be held. Standing on the side lines on a weekly basis watching as our kids play has created the added benefit of parent relationships.  Through these events, parents have become more comfortable with one another and the children have grown their social group. This is also true for the myriad of clubs that teachers offer in the mornings. We have everything from knitting to chess to cursive writing. All free and open to any student that wants to participate.  These clubs also honor the schedule that our parents need to keep for work. School does not start until 8:45, but we open our doors at 8:00 because so many of our families need to get to work. This way, their children are engaged in quality activities and forming strong relationships with teachers outside of the classroom.

To keep the focus on the positive, once a month we use the first 15 minutes of our Professional Learning Communities (PLC’s) to make positive phone calls home.  We knew this was a need when the majority of our parents answered the phone wondering what their child had done wrong. It is taking time to turn this culture around and let parents know we want to highlight the good.  Now, when we do have to call home about a behavior incident we have a well established relationship.

One area I need to work to improve is my ongoing communication with parents.  Last year I started a podcast for parents in English and Spanish. This allowed me to communicate with our parents, regardless of their reading ability.  I was able to text out a link to phones, which also supported ease of use. Despite receiving positive feedback and increased attendance at meetings, I have let this practice fall to the wayside.  This is one of my goals to revive this practice for next year.

We certainly aren’t perfect and are always looking for ideas to get more diverse participation in organizations like our PTSA and Building Accountability, but as long as we keep it in the forefront of our minds we are doing something right.  So, what are your traditions and systems that make your school welcoming? What are the ideas you would share with others? As a principal, I think building and sustaining a welcoming school is one of the most important things we do. We need our families to be part of our team and it is through a welcoming culture that we can accomplish this goal.

Kendra Carpenter is an elementary principal and CCIRA council leader in Summit School District in Colorado.  Find her on Twitter at @kendracarpen.

Bridging Classroom and Small Group Instruction through Intention

By MaryAnna Fox

I have been a teacher for 12 years now.  That’s longer than anything I have ever chosen to do in my life. Even with the intention of choosing to be in a school every day, there are days I feel like I don’t belong.  There are days, moments, weeks where I feel like I have no clue as to what is going on – that everyone except me, is making decisions for me.  It’s exhausting and scary to be vulnerable and put myself out there every single day and to know that I might fail and fall flat on my face in an attempt to try something new.  It can all be overwhelming and exhausting, and there are days I want to avoid all of it, play hooky from our staff meeting, and just play Candy Crush on my phone instead.

But, I’m an adult.

I am an adult who asks students every single day and do exactly what I want to avoid myself. I ask them to show up, learn something new, expose their weaknesses and strengths and be vulnerable in front of me and their peers.  To be exposed. To take risks. But, am I an adult who has created the opportunity for them to belong? To have ownership of their learning? To develop the narrative of who they are as a student without asking them to leave who they are as a kid at the door?

I have had the honor of being a classroom teacher, and now of being a small group teacher.  A reading specialist. An interventionist. An enrichment teacher. The teacher who works with ‘struggling’ readers.  The teacher who provides “Tier II” intervention. The teacher who is the data keeper. The teacher who pulls students out of class.  

I am the teacher who is very conscious of the narrative that I am helping create in every student I see.  Intentionally or not, I am a part of their story. Am I telling them they’re not good enough to be in their classroom as I ask them to leave their community and come with me?  Am I telling them that there is something wrong with them? That they don’t belong? That they need fixing?

Please don’t misunderstand me: I am not advocating for eliminating a space (within or out of the classroom) where students receive the specialized, individualized instruction that they need.  Rather, I am reflecting and questioning the identities that we are creating for the students who we see as ‘struggling’ by taking them out of a classroom for individualized instruction.

So, now what?

Exactly.  Now what. How can I, as a teacher, mirror and create an environment that supports the classroom community when I only see these students 30 minutes a day?  How can I encourage and support the Balanced Literacy space that my students just left, while individualizing the instruction to meet each student where they are, and push them to new places?   I honestly, had no clue. I had many questions, many thoughts, but few answers. I wanted to know how do I offer both individualized instruction and full membership in the classroom community when they returned? So, I turned to my professional sidekicks (thanks Maggie Beatty Roberts  for a term I will always and forever use). That’s right – I consulted the sidekicks that live on my bookshelf and surround me at school. I read and re-read Jennifer Serravallo, Jan Richardson, Donalyn Miller, Richard Allington, Marie Clay, Deborah L. Wolter, Debbie Miller, Christopher Emdin, Lucy Calkins and more.  I talked to classroom teachers, past teammates, our incredible instructional coach and the students who sit with me in my intervention room.

It kept coming back to me.  Me as the teacher and the adult. Back to me and the intentionality of what I do everyday.  

So, I set my intentions.

The intention to make sure that every student I see does not have their narrative as a reader defined by the fact that they need support in reading.  The intention of helping carry the heavy lifting in building bridges between the classroom and the intervention classroom.

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The intention that the intervention space is not a space of deficit.  It’s not a space for students to ‘catch-up”. It’s not in replacement of classroom instruction.  It is not reteaching of content. That it is not part of setting up “exclusionary practices in the student’s educational narrative” (Wolter, 2015, p. 12)

The intention to collaborate and communicate.  At our school, we are extremely fortunate to have a system in place where grade level teams and specialists (English Language Arts, Gifted and Talented, Reading, Math, Special Ed, etc) have a time every other month to collaborate and look at upcoming units in the classroom.  The space is used to anticipate possible challenges and extensions needed within the classroom, but also in the space outside of the classroom. Through this space we can intentionally align our teaching to the standards and main ideas of the classroom units and help students bridge and connect the physical and intellectual spaces.  

The intention to follow through.  I’ll be honest.  I see 10 groups of kids, kindergarten through 5th grade, and more than 50 students pass through my door every day.  Somedays it is easier for me to do my own thing; to teach a lesson in isolation or just move on to the next guided reading lesson in the curriculum.  It takes more time, more intention, more follow through, to plan my space to align with the classroom – that is true. But again, I’ll be honest. It’s so worth it.  Right now my second graders are working on poetry to practice their fluency, phrasing, word flexibility, and phonemic awareness. But, they’re also working on poetry because in their classroom, everyone is working on poetry.  In a space with four students, my second graders are taking risks, being vulnerable, taking ownership, feeling successful, and feel as if they belong, not just in my room, but in the classroom as well. They look at me as if I have magical powers in knowing what is going on in their classroom.  “Ms. Fox! Did you know we’re also working on poetry in class?? That’s so cool!” I wish I could them it was magic, but it’s not. It’s all about intention. In fourth grade we are tackling social issues amd empathy through Historical Fiction and Lucy Calkins Units of Study. We are taking on character traits in first grade through Jan Richardson’s guided reading structure. We are supporting with details in third and defining our identity as readers in 5th grade via Serravallo.  We have Reading Goal bookmarks from the classroom (courtesy of Serravallo) which we add to before students take them back into their communities. We radiate happiness, success, ownership, identity and belonging. We also celebrate incredible growth and less and less of a need for me.

In going back to my sidekicks Jan Richardson and Marie Clay, they speak of “echoes” from one part of a guided reading lesson to another. The concepts you develop in word work is what shows up in the text, in the writing and across the next day’s lesson.  With our intentionality, we can set up and create these echoes across classrooms, across spaces, across days, weeks and months. In reinforcing, supporting, aligning and helping create bridges between spaces, we remove much of the heavy lifting for our students.  We can create spaces that no longer reinforce struggling readers’ narratives with inadequacy, but instead give them autonomy, ownership and belonging.

I am the adult.  The adult that asks students to show up and be vulnerable and take risks.  But I’m also the adult that intentionally chooses to create a space, an environment of learning that is founded in belonging, ownership, safety, and success.  I intentionally create echoes across environments, and make sure that my time spent along each student’s journey is not seen as because of a deficit. I can be intentional in what role I play in the creation of their identity as a student, learner, and kid.
My “Professional Sidekicks” that I reference often:

Reading Upside Down by Deborah L. Wolter

The Book Whisperer by Donalyn Miller

Next Step Forward in Guided Reading by Jan Richardson

A Mindset for Learning by Kristine Mraz

Identity Safe Classrooms by Dorothy Steele

For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood … and the Rest of Y’all Too by Christopher Emdin

Anything by Jennifer Serravallo, but specifically:

Teaching Reading in Small Groups by Jennifer Serravallo and Lucy Calkins

The Literacy Teacher’s Handbook K-2

The Literacy Teacher’s Handbook 3-6

Reading Strategies

Wolter, D. L. (2015). Reading upside down: Identifying and addressing opportunity gaps in literacy instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.
MaryAnna Fox has been an elementary school teacher for 12 years. She has taught kindergarten, second grade, and is currently a K-5 reading specialist at an elementary school in the Cherry Creek School District.  MaryAnna is also the co-president of the Arapahoe County chapter of CCIRA @ac_ccira. She can be found professionally on Instagram at or on Twitter at @mountainsun16.

Heart Matters

By Jennifer Allen

Fostering Heart in Professional Development


When I was in high school I had a soccer coach, Mr. Thurston. Mr. Thurston was a screamer. He screamed it all, the good and the bad. What I remember most about being a part of this team are not the wins or losses, but rather his words, “play with heart.” His belief was that if we worked together and played with heart as a team we would always be winners, both on and off the field. He believed playing with heart was greater than any individual win. The more heart we had as a team the stronger the team we became.

I believe that the concept of playing with heart holds true in professional learning communities as it does in sports. It’s been a personal quest of mine over the years to design professional development experiences for teachers that foster this feeling of playing with heart.

This year I facilitated a professional development opportunity for veteran teachers.

My hope was to provide veteran teachers with a study group like experience that would rekindle their flame for the classroom. The group was designed to promote collaboration as well as a self-reflection. The monthly day long meetings were designed to feel more like a retreat than an inservice. Ultimately the goal was for teachers in the group to rediscover what it feels like to play with heart both as a collaborative learner in a professional development group, as well as their classroom.

Elements that Matter in Nourishing the Heart

Giving teachers a monthly release day for this work during the school day and providing an environment away from classrooms were ways to acknowledge the teachers in the group as professionals. Teachers also had chunks of time during the day to design their own learning in which they could work individually or with their colleagues. The design of the day fostered relationships among the group. Teachers interpreted the content as meaningful since they had opportunities to self-select and dig into the resources that were most relevant to their learning interests. Environment, shared leadership, and individualized learning were strategies used to foster a sense of belonging and professionalism within this group, all which got at the heart of our learning


We met during the school day once a month off school grounds. I wanted participants to feel like they were at a retreat rather than a traditional pd school inserivce. Leaving the school and providing coffee and a few treats helped make the day feel a bit more special. Teachers commented that they felt treated like professionals.

Shared Leadership

We rotated facilitators as we made meaning together of new content. This was another way to acknowledge the professionalism of each teacher. Typically we were together about 3 hours out of the day exploring new content. We had a common text to ground us in this experience. We started the day together for the first 2 ½ hours and ended the day together by reconvening for the last ½ hour of the day.

 Individualized Learning

There were 3 hours in the middle of the day in which teachers set their own agenda. This was time to work alone or collaborate.

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 The February issue of Educational Leadership explored the theme of Measuring What Matters. I thought about the veteran teacher group. The evaluations and rating scales documented concrete changes to practice that teachers would make as a result of their participation. But, what wasn’t captured through the rating scales was the heart of this group which was the key to their success. Sometimes our data can’t always be conveyed through numbers on a paper. After reading through the evaluations I went back to the group and simply asked each teacher to share one word that best describes this learning experience. I will leave you with the words from the participants. Words that I believe reflect the heart of the group, words that get at the core of what it means to learn with heart.

Refreshed. Recharged. Nourished. Inspired. Renewed. Journey. Rejuvenated. Motivated. Again!

Jennifer Allen is a literacy specialist in Waterville, Maine. She has worked in education for the last twenty-five years.  Jennifer started as a classroom teacher in the primary grades and has been working in this position as a literacy/specialist coach for the last sixteen years. She is the author of Becoming a Literacy Leader and A Sense of Belonging, both published by Stenhouse.

Creating Classrooms That Foster Resilience

by Vicki Collet

Do your students see challenges and confusion as stepping stones to success? Do they recognize that taking risks and making mistakes are important parts of learning?  Students who have the resilience to deal with problems are better prepared for the unknown future that lies ahead in our rapidly-changing world.

Imagine this scene in Mrs. Durkin’s kindergarten classroom:  At the writing table, Christopher is making a birthday card for his classmate, Zander. He checks Zander’s nametag to get the spelling right and stretches out sounds as he composes his message.  Santos is at the SmartBoard in the front of the room; when the audio is not working, he reaches over and turns the volume knob; still no sound. Then Santos unplugs and reinserts the audio cord and smiles as music begins playing. At the kidney table, Mrs. Durkin takes a Running Record, noting that Gracie stops, rereads, and corrects her miscue when she gets confused.  All of these students are exhibiting resilience; they respond actively when confronted with problems during learning.

Resilient classrooms are those where students are not afraid to make mistakes.  There is a strong culture for inquiry and the atmosphere reflects a willingness to take risks because learning is seen as worthwhile.  Students understand that trials and errors bring learning! Because literacy learning requires experimenting and facing unknowns, knowing how to deal well with challenges is an important literacy skill.  Classrooms with an environment of flexibility enhance students’ learning and foster resilience.

As students develop resilience, they recognize that effort develops knowledge and skill.  Rather than believing that success depends solely on talent, they recognize that success is tied to effort (Dweck, 2002).  Rather than focusing on difficulties, they focus on what they can do.  Resilient people take an optimistic view.  They interpret setbacks as temporary, situational, and changeable.  Students who are less resilient describe failure as permanent, pervasive, and out of their control (Seligman, 2011).  

All students are motivated—but some, because of past experiences, are dominated by avoidance motivation as a way to protect themselves from situations that they feel may lead to humiliation or disappointment (Goldstein & Brooks, 2013).  Students who are not resilient are worried about making mistakes because they fear failure. Because of this fear, they choose what to do based on how successful they think they will be. When these students don’t feel certain of their ability to succeed, they procrastinate or do not attempt assignments.  During class, they may not participate because they worry about what others will think if they give an incorrect answer. They view their performance as a measure of their value. They will avoid mistakes to avoid the risk of being embarrassed. Making mistakes can leave non-resilient students feeling distressed and overwhelmed.  

Learning Experiences That Increase Resilience

Teachers can take action to overcome students’ fears, reduce avoidance motivation, and increase resilience.  Literacy learning experiences that build resilience include opportunities for students to correct errors and build understanding.  

For example, encouraging readers to “take a running start and try that again,” when faced with an unknown word will increase reading tenacity.  Students who struggle are often conditioned to look to the teacher whenever they come to an unknown word. Teachers build resilience when, instead of supplying the word, they encourage application of a strategy or use of a resource.  A quick cue can urge students to re-read, apply context clues, consider background experience, use sound/symbol association, or use classroom resources to figure out the unknown word. If teachers mindfully take this approach, they build their students’ capacity for independence and resilience.  In the classroom described above, Mrs. Durkin quickly responded to a student’s upward glance for assistance by pointing back to the book, redirecting the child’s attention to cues that she had and skills she could use to figure out an unknown word.

Teaching comprehension fix-up strategies helps students to develop persistence in meaning-making as they read.  Mrs. Durkin taught her students fix-up strategies during small-group guided reading instruction. An object was used to introduce each strategy: a stop sign (stop-and-think), a paper clip (make connections), and a parrot figure (reread).  Then, when students got stuck, they decided which strategy would work best; they grabbed the corresponding object as a visual reminder.   

Encouraging students to use classroom resources such as process charts, word walls, and letter-sound cards engenders a problem-solving attitude.  For example, an anchor chart created by Mrs. Durkin’s class entitled, “Help for Writing,” includes a list (with accompanying visuals) of resources for writing:  Ask a friend, word wall, letter cards, my word bank (each child’s file box of words), posters, and finally, Mrs. Durkin. Although Mrs. Durkin’s name had originally appeared at the top of the list, after the class brainstormed so many other resources, they decided together that they could move her to the bottom of the list!Screen Shot 2018-03-19 at 11.46.34 PM

Teachers’ approach toward spelling can foster resilience.  Encouraging invented spelling in emergent writing helps children take risks and develop confidence as writers.  Mrs. Durkin had letter-sound cards posted in her classroom to encourage invented spelling. Although she had these cards available from the beginning of the year, Mrs. Durkin also taught mini-lessons that highlighted the features of the cards (picture, letter, other possible spellings) to draw students’ attention to how they might be used during reading and writing.  Importantly, if students asked her how to spell a word, Mrs. Durkin directed their attention to the cards when she felt they would be helpful. For older writers, spelling strategies like Have-A-Go recognize the value of making an educated guess. With Have-a-Go, students lift words from their writing that need correcting, use what they know to make attempts at spelling the word, then check it against a resource for correct spelling.  Invented spelling and Have-A-Go both encourage students to use their background skills and knowledge, make an educated guess, and take risks in their writing. My favorite example of this came from a kindergarten student, Savannah, who unabashedly included the word “nomony” (pneumonia) in her writing!

Providing students with opportunities for drafting and revision cultivates a realistic and helpful view of the writing process and supports resilience. Mrs. Durkin’s writing workshop time provided students with opportunities to revisit their favorite pieces.  They gloried in learning about the caret, and a look through students’ writing folders showed that they were taking advantage of the ability it offered to add to their thinking. Correction tape was another favorite tool in Mrs. Durkin’s classroom. As students prepared their final drafts, they knew they could turn to this resource rather than recopying the entirety of their precious published piece.  Tools like these reduce the consequences of making a mistake. By offering learning experiences that encourage risk-taking over perfection, teachers create a classroom climate that builds resilience.

Offering Praise to Increase Resilience

Another way teachers can create a resilient classroom is through offering specific praise that is focused on students’ efforts.  When teachers look for opportunities to praise effort rather than critique outcomes, they are utilizing a strengths-based approach.  According to Mueller and Dweck (1998), praising children for hard work leads them to value learning opportunities and persist in their efforts.  When praise is tied to the process of students’ work, rather than their perceived ability, students rise to challenges in ways that enhance their skills and their resilience.  

Mrs. Durkin offered her students praise that had these motivating characteristics. When Ryan read his zoo book to Mrs. Durkin, she responded, “Good job, Ryan.  I love it—I love all your detail. I love how you told me the giraffe was yellow and the lizard was green. I like that you used the word finally.”  Similarly, when Zach read Mrs. Durkin his book draft, she said, “Good, Zach – very nice!  I love how you talked about the zoo train. I wouldn’t expect that that would escape from your writing.”  In those few short words she: 1) expressed her high expectations for him, 2) praised his use of detail, and 3) made a personal connection, showing that she knew and remembered something he was passionate about (trains).  Praise such as Mrs. Durkin’s, which is specific and focused on effort, increases students’ resilience.

When tied to student efforts, praise encourages students to learn new things, persist after difficulty, use better strategies for correcting mistakes, and improve performance (Zentall & Morris, 2010).  Students whose efforts are praised want to “immerse themselves in information that could teach them more” (Dweck, 2002, p. 49). Praising children for hard work leads them to value learning opportunities and continue in their efforts.

Resilient students recognize mistakes and failures as opportunities to learn.  They know that discovery requires testing and trying the unfamiliar. As you use the approaches described above, you are not only strengthening students’ literacy skills, you are building the important personal attribute of resilience.


Dweck, C. (2002).  Messages that motivate:  How praise molds students’ beliefs, motivation, and performance (in surprising ways).  In J.Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp.37-59).  San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Goldstein, S. & Brooks, R. (2013).  Handbook of resilience in children. New York: Springer.

Mueller, C.M., & Dweck, C.S. (1998).  Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33-52.  

Seligman, M.E.P. (2011).  Building resilience. Harvard Business Review, 89, 100-106.    

Zentall, S. R., & Morris, B. J. (2010). “Good job, you’re so smart”: The effects of inconsistency of praise on young children’s motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 107(2), 155-163.
Vicki Collet is an assistant professor at the University of Arkansas and past president of CCIRA. Her research focuses on literacy, instructional coaching, and teacher preparation and mentorship. Follow her blog at , on Facebook at, and Twitter @vscollet.