3 Reading Response Categories to Genuinely Engage Students with Texts

by Marilyn Pryle, 2020 Conference Speaker

If you walked into my classroom, you would see students who voice their opinions, who freely ask questions, and who make all kinds of connections; you’d see students who focus on language and craft, who examine texts through the use of literary devices and archetypes and even formal literary criticism, and who constantly refer to the texts as they discuss. They do these things consistently, organically, and always in variety, based on their own inklings, curiosities, and interests.

         It wasn’t always this way. I used to assign a reading and then give students comprehension questions to check their understanding. But the use of Reading Responses has transformed my entire approach to teaching textual analysis. With the Reading Response system, each student can—and is expected to—bring his or her real self to the table.

         By writing and sharing Reading Responses, instead of simply “finding the answer,” as one would with a set of comprehension questions, the goal is to contribute to the discussion. What’s the difference? When your only goal is to contribute to the discussion, you can be wrong. You can ask a “dumb” question. You can give your opinion freely. You can use your life—your outside reading, your knowledge about TV and movies, your family stories. You care about your groupmates’ thoughts, perhaps, and not just “what the teacher wants.” Will you arrive at “The Right Answers”? Some, for sure. But more importantly, you will meander along the path of deep thinking, the road that leads to evidence-based interpretation rooted in personal experience, prior knowledge, and engagement. The road, perhaps, of personal growth. And isn’t that why we all teach in the first place? If we can get students to be present for their own education, we have succeeded. I call this reading with presence: reading with your whole self, your true self, your memories, your opinions, your willingness to learn and grow.

         Writing Reading Responses (RRs) is a daily or almost-daily practice of having students craft brief, structured responses to whatever text they have read. There are four rules to writing a Reading Response:

  • Choose a category of response, using the list of possible categories, and write the category name at the top of the response.
  • Develop an original thought within that category and write out the thought.
  •  Find, copy, and cite a line, paragraph, or page from the text that relates to the original thought.
  •  Keep writing and thinking for at least five sentences.

         I usually give my students a list of 15 categories to start the year, and add about 15 more as the year goes on. These categories range from topics such as Give an Opinion, Spot the Setting, and Mind the Mood to more advanced topics such as Archetype Alert and Feminist Criticism. The RR categories are meant to be a vehicle to help students think more clearly and deeply about a text; they are the scalpels students can use to dissect the text. I give students a sheet of the category titles and some thinking prompts to go with each. The rest is up to them.

Examples of RR Categories

  • Give an Opinion
  • Ask a Question
  • Make a Connection
  • Language Recognition
  • Theme Recognition 
  • Tell the Tone
  • Mark the Motivation
  • Cite the Claim
  • Interesting Intro 
  • Archetype Alert
  • The Joy of Genre
  • Note the Narrator
  • Feminist Criticism
  • Gender and Queer Theory
  • Critical Race Theory

         Here are three of the most popular categories in my class with their prompts, and student examples of RRs for each:

  1. Give an Opinion: Tell what you think or feel about a certain part, and why.  You could react to an aspect of character, plot, theme, language, tone, style—anything in the text. But you must be specific.      

Give an Opinion for The Eye of Minds (J. Dashner) by Noelle

I think it is really sad that Michael doesn’t miss his parents. In the book it says, “Between school, the Virtnet, and Helga, he hardly had time to miss them” (location 307).  This is depressing. It’s like he doesn’t even know his parents. Every kid should have the chance to love and bond with his or her parents. Michael is completely fine with not connecting with his. It’s almost like he’s taking them for granted, which is something no child should ever do because parents are the ones who provide for the children. 

  1. Make a Connection: A certain point in the text reminds you of another story, poem, movie, song, or something in “real life.”  How are the two alike? Be specific.

Make a Connection for “The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter,” (Li Po) by Callie

Li Po’s poem “The River Merchant’s Wife” reminds me of Taylor Swift’s song “Come Back… Be Here.” Po’s poem tells of a young girl who at first resists her marriage, but then learns to love and depend on her husband (“I desired my dust to be mingled with yours / Forever and forever and forever” lines 12-13). So when her husband leaves for business, she feels isolated and old. Likewise, Taylor Swift’s song is about how at first she didn’t want to be attached to her partner, but she did. So when he left her, it ruined her. Swift sings, “And this is when the feeling sinks in / I didn’t want to miss you like this / come back… be here.” Both the poem and the song show longing for a partner that is gone. 

  1. Language Recognition: You notice some engaging sensory details, a simile or metaphor, some onomatopoeia or alliteration, some parallelism, or something else. Whatever you notice, quote it, and explain how it adds to the text. Does it contribute to the mood or characterization? Does it relate to a theme? Could it have a deeper meaning? What would that be?

Language Recognition for The Young Elites (M. Lu) by Isabel

I think the description of Gemma’s laugh is a beautiful description that gives powerful insight to her character. On page 185, paragraph 6, the laugh is described as “a bright ringing sound, the laugh of someone who’s loved.” The sound of the laugh suggests to me that Gemma is an optimist, as well as surrounded by friends and family. Also, this is amazing personality expressed in this laugh is probably going to draw Adelina and her closer. As well as this, the wording in this description was so well done, one could almost hear the laughter for themselves. Gemma could be well analyzed by her marvelous giggle.


         Once students have written an RR or two about a text, they have something to say in class.  It may be a minor point, or it may be a major point, but it is a concrete thought and it is tied to a specific part of the text. No longer can a student say, “I don’t know” when asked to react to a reading. When given time to write, and a list of choices to scaffold their reactions, all students can come up with something.

         With Reading Responses, class time becomes a time of meaningful discovery. Students do not passively ingest information but actively create it through their own thinking and discussion. The role of the teacher becomes one of backstage facilitation, expert clarification, and joyful encouragement. RRs are like cinder blocks—small and concrete, manageable for one person to carry. But when used together, all manner of building becomes possible.

Marilyn Pryle is a tenth-grade world literature teacher at Abington Heights High School in Clarks Summit, PA. She is the author of Reading with Presence (Heinemann) and 50 Writing Activities for Meeting Higher Standards (Scholastic). Her work centers around giving students the tools to find their own voices in reading and writing. She was recently named Pennsylvania’s 2019-2020 Teacher of the Year. Find her at marilynpryle.com and @MPryle on Twitter.



Innovation Matters

by Regie Routman, 2020 Conference Speaker

When one thinks of innovation, what comes to mind? Imagination, ingenuity, courage, careful study and reflection, questioning the evidence, a new way of doing things, a willingness to fail, ground-breaking thinking, the thrill of discovery. All of these. In education, specifically, innovation must go beyond inventive actions and increased student achievement to include students’ growing self-reliance, confidence, competence, and optimism for what’s possible in their learning lives—in and out of school. Perhaps, most importantly, innovation must be connected to equity. Is the innovation creating greater opportunity for all our students?

Responsible innovation requires us to be responsible educators who view ongoing, high level professional learning as a necessity. As such, we carefully read, study, reflect, and collaborate with colleagues. We take a leadership role in our schools to speak out and ensure that careful study and reflection underpin all innovative decisions and actions. Based on deep knowledge and application of credible research and principled practices—as well as knowing our students well—we teachers and administrators then create, often with student input, actions and lessons and projects that engage students’ hearts and minds as well as the prescribed curriculum and standards. Teachers are not just “making up” cute projects that keep students busy. Through trial and error and deep knowledge and experience, we work to figure out ways to ensure expert teaching and assessing—which includes responsible innovation– focus on students’ strengths, interests, and passions before tackling students’ needs.

My first major innovation came about more than 30 years ago when I was working as a “pull-out” reading specialist in a high poverty school where 90% of the students were African-American and where the majority of first graders were failing to learn to read with commercial “basal” texts, skills-in-isolation lessons, and worksheets. Feeling distraught and frustrated, due mostly to educators’ low expectations and lack of urgency to do better for students, I took a leap of faith and submitted to the superintendent of schools a thoughtful, research-based proposal. That “First Grade Book Flood” detailed a radical departure at that time—teaching reading and writing through the best of children’s literature and daily journal writing in a classroom where a rich, relevant, and accessible library formed the centerpiece. No commercial reading texts, no worksheets, no scripted teaching. Lots of reading aloud of great fiction and nonfiction literature, shared reading, shared writing, book talk, celebrating students’ stories, and publishing children’s writing. As co-teacher for each morning in a first grade classroom, we deliberately and systematically embedded systematic and explicit phonics and skills work, throughout the day, primarily using the familiar real-world texts we and our students were creating, writing, reading, and singing–together and on their own. As is true today, the pressure to raise test scores on required standardized tests remained unrelenting.

The overwhelming success of that literacy and learning story, which resulted in myriad, positive outcomes—including high test scores in reading–is detailed in my first book, Transitions: From Literature to Literacy (Heinemann 1988.) I have now written about twelve books for educators, and all include innovative practices that I developed based on knowing and respecting students, their backgrounds, and their cultures as well as avidly reading and reflecting on current research and “best practices.” Just as I do today, we connected curriculum requirements and standards to real-world learning, always with the ongoing intent of bringing more meaning, relevance, and joy into teaching and learning. And, as has always been true, high test scores became a by-product of engaging, excellent, and equitable teaching and learning in a healthy, trusting school culture.

My heartbreak today is that decades later, for a whole host of reasons, we are still dealing with “reading wars”, educational inequities, segregated schools, scripted programs, too much testing and test prep, over-identification of and labeling of students for intervention, overwhelmed teachers suffering from learned helplessness—all amidst random acts of professional development for exhausted teachers. We must shift our priorities from focusing on quick results on superficial content to favor deeper learning on significant topics, which have real-world application. There are no shortcuts here. Excellent, embedded professional learning, what I call Professional LITERACY Communities, are a schoolwide necessity. Although the political landscape has always been perilous when it comes to learning to read, if we are knowledgeable and courageous we can individually and collectively take action–now. If we are a part of changing even just one student’s life in a positive and lasting way, that is a success of which we can be proud.

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Courtesy of Kristopher Roller at Unsplash

Innovation is what all expert teachers do each time we are responsive to students’ strengths, interests, and needs– before, during, and after instruction and assessment. Innovation results when we thoughtfully adjust, create, and modify our instruction so students learn more. Innovation is not about “buying new stuff,” having everyone “on the same page”, or finding quick and required ways to “measure” achievement. Innovative teaching is also not about mastering skills or passing tests or following a program with fidelity. Innovation in schools is about creating, re-creating, and sustaining a thriving culture that promotes deep thinking on important topics and makes learning more engaging, assessable, meaningful, and equitable for all students. Responsible innovation introduces better ideas, processes, and products that ensure every student finds a way into learning that respects and upholds their dignity, strengths, and intelligence.

Consider using the following questions to self-reflect and speak out, as necessary, before adopting any new innovation, including technology:

  • Will the innovation substantively enrich, improve, and/or accelerate efficiency, effectiveness, and excellence in teaching and learning?
  • Does the innovation promote equitable access to all learners?
  • Who benefits from the innovation? Who might be hurt or disadvantaged by it?
  • Does the innovation lead learners to become more competent, self-reliant, reflective learners?
  • Does the innovation meaningfully enrich students’ lives and increase joy in teaching and learning?
  • Do the benefits of the innovation outweigh any problematic issues or outcomes?
  • What are you and your colleagues doing to make responsible innovation an integral part of teaching, learning, and assessing?

The innovations described in Transitions and in my subsequent books and resources flourished in classrooms—and continue to succeed today– because they are grounded in a deep knowledge of literacy and learning, a respect for the dignity and potential of all learners, and because we create a safe and intellectual culture that allows for “productive failure” for full-out efforts. You can do this too! In spite of mandates, restrictions, and too many requirements and tests, it is still possible to find innovative ways to put students first, to maintain some sanity, and put common sense and joy back into teaching and learning.

For much more information—and practical application–on innovations, attend Regie’s 2020 CCIRA session: “INNOVATION MATTERS: How Bold Thinking Saved My Teaching, My Students, and My Life—and how that can be true for you too.”

Regie Routman works side by side with teachers, administrators, and students in underperforming schools and districts to raise expectations, accelerate reading and writing achievement, and bring joy and authenticity into teaching and learning. She is the author, most recently, of Literacy Essentials: Engagement, Excellence, and Equity for AllLearners (Stenhouse, 2018) For full information on Regie’s many books and resources and to contact her go to www.regieroutman.org and @regieroutman on Twitter and Facebook.

Deliberate Practice Makes the Reader

by Gravity Goldberg and Renee Houser       Gravity Goldberg is a 2020 Conference Speaker

Your weekly planner is all mapped out and includes daily time for whole class read alouds, minilessons, small group instruction and independent reading. The promise of a new week makes you smile. “This week I’ll get to it all,” you say to yourself. And then the week begins- unplanned for parent meetings, a fire drill, the student who threw up in class and the fact that you didn’t plan for any of these interruptions means you feel

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Courtesy of Kelly Sikkema at Unsplash

seriously behind. What’s the first thing you let go from your plans? For most, it is independent reading. We tend to believe that the minutes where we are in front of students talking are the most effective, yet research doesn’t necessarily support this. 


We argue that independent reading, when supported by conferring, is actually the most important part of a reader’s day. While there is research to support the power of independent reading in terms of choice, volume, and motivation (https://www2.ncte.org/statement/independent-reading/), when coupled with conferring it also aligns with the research on deliberate practice. It is the daily practice itself that makes independent reading so effective at cultivating a reader’s mindset as well as developing reading skills. 

Dr. Ericsson, a prominent psychologist in the field of performance, has published widely and his research reveals several key findings about what sorts of practice lead to expertise. In the following chart we connect some of his findings about deliberate practice to independent reading and conferring.

Characteristics of Deliberate Practice

Connection to Independent Reading/Conferring

Most practice should happen independently and not with others. Independent reading is time spent reading on your own.Conferring supports the solo practice of reading by focusing on the reader not the book.
There needs to be clear goals. Independent reading is a time when students get to know themselves well and can reflect on the goals that can help them continue to grow. Conferring can be a place to set goals with students about the kind of reader they want to be and the kind of reading they want to do.
The practice itself needs to adjust for difficulty level. Across the year during independent reading, students read different genres and for different purposes so they continue to experience opportunities for growth. Conferring helps students adjust by taking on more challenging texts, strategies, and deeper thinking than they could do totally on their own.
Learners need immediate feedback and reflection. Independent reading has a built in process of reflection that readers get better at with experience. Conferring is a time to give student readers feedback about what they are already doing and how it is impacting their reading right now.
Learners need a coach for individualized practice with opportunities for repetition and gradual refinement. Independent reading is not a time to leave students totally on their own without support. Teachers serve as coaches who help students practice the kind of thinking that is helping them make meaning of texts and evolves along with the student reader across the year.

(Supporting Independent Readers, by Gravity Goldberg and Renee Houser)

We encourage you to keep independent reading time sacred and reflect upon how well you and your student readers are capitalizing on its power. Consider reflecting on the following questions:

  • How often are students reading on their own? 
  • Do students have clear goals about themselves as readers?
  • Are students getting supported regularly with instruction that challenges their thinking and process?
  • How often are students getting feedback, as they read, about their reading process?
  • How are you positioning yourself as a reading coach who gradually does less so students take on more?


Ericsson, A. (2016). Peak: Secrets from the new science of expertise. New York, NY: Eamon 


Goldberg, G. & Houser, R. (2020). Supporting Independent Readers: 25 Answers to the Most 

Frequently Asked Questions about Conferring. Portsmouth, NH: Stenhouse. 

NCTE Statement on Independent Reading https://www2.ncte.org/statement/independent-reading/ 


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From the start of their collaboration, Gravity Goldberg and Renee Houser have been
deepening their ideas about
how teachers personalize instruction for students. In the years since they worked together as staff developers at the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project, they have each gone on to found organizations focused on supporting the ongoing professional learning of educators – Renee’s on the west coast, Gravity’s on the east coast. The constant in all their work is to model for teachers how to develop classroom communities where the unique individuality of students is at the center of each instructional decision so that classrooms are brimming with the fullest of possibilities that both teachers and students bring to classroom communities.  They are the authors of the What Do I Teach Readers Tomorrow? books (Corwin Literacy) and Teachers Toolkit for Independent Reading (Stenhouse).


Teaching Phonics: The Importance of Analyzing and Decoding Words in Isolation

By Heidi Anne E. Mesmer, Ph D

Learning to understand how words work is hard. A young child must focus on multiple visual symbols and then recall what each symbol refers to orally. Each part of the word must be understood in order. Effective phonics instruction isolates individual words so that children can study them. A purely embedded approach to phonics instruction is not effective. (Embedded means that phonics is taught only within the context of a book, during reading.)

In 2000, an experienced first-grade teacher, Johnston, did a very interesting study. She taught words in predict­able big books using three different approaches: (1) reading the books repeatedly; (2) using sentence strips; and (3) analyzing the words in isolation, individually. The repeated readings involved reading the books about ten times. Students learned the least number of words by listening to words read in books and the most words in isolation (Johnston 2000).

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The idea of this study was not that context and big books are bad. In fact, reading books and charts to young children, pointing to words, and showing them print in a connected, contextualized way are all essential practices, but teachers need to understand what shared reading accomplishes.

Shared reading usually helps children understand how letters are used to form words, how an alphabetic script encodes meaningful messages, and how we read connected texts (e.g., left to right, top to bottom). However, at the beginning stages, repeatedly reading words in a big book should not be the only approach to learning to read words because it does not specifically focus on the architecture of words and how they work. Learning words only through a contextualized approach will not lead to high levels of word learning for most children. Learners must carefully analyze each part of  individual words. They must think about why the words can and cat are different.

Analyzing the letter-sounds in words is a form of metalinguistic awareness, a way of thinking about language. It requires children to suspend focus on the word’s meaning temporarily, in order to focus on features of the alphabetic system. To learn the system, students need to be freed from trying to balance both the meaning demands and the mechanical demands of words.

So, if you are teaching phonics make sure to give words their own time and space. Don’t be drawn into a forced choice about word analysis. Ignore people who say that it is “wrong” to analyze words out of context or people who say that all children need is out-of-context phonics instruction. Research simply does not support either of those positions, especially for beginning readers.

Heidi Anne E Mesmer is professor or literacy at Virginia Tech. She is coordinator of the Reading Specialist Program and the author of Letter Lessons and First Words: Phonics Foundations That Work. Her research has appeared in Reading Research Quarterly, The Educational Researcher, The Journal of Literacy Research, The Reading Teacher, and other books and journals. She has written and directed eight training grants in two states aimed at improving reading instruction in K-5 classrooms. Find her on Twitter @haemesmer.

Twitter: @haemesmer

References Cited

Johnston, F. R. (2000). Word learning in predictable text. Journal of Educational Psychology92(2), 248.

Problem Solving the Reading Rut

By Christina Nosek

Like many of you, in my fifth grade multiple subject, self contained classroom, reading is our number one priority. In addition to our afternoon reading workshop, we focus on reading in multiple ways throughout our day and week. Since August, we have engaged in daily independent, choice reading as students start arriving each morning. Ever since I learned of this practice, soft starts, from Sara Ahmed and Smokey Daniels in Screen Shot 2019-11-11 at 9.35.33 PMUpstanders, I’ve never looked back.  Along with our reading soft starts, we also engage in daily book talks, keep track of our reading with book stack photos, have discussion around books, write book recommendations, and offer picture book & novel read alouds in which we often draw connections to our independent reading. Every single day, we are living a reading lifestyle in the classroom.

However, even though we are prioritizing reading, trouble still arises.  This past week, after a couple days of observation, conferring with students during independent reading time, and analyzing book stack photos for trends, I realized a few of my students have actually fallen into a reading rut. Whether a student was hopping from book to book without commitment, rereading the same exact book over and over, or simply not picking up a book to read at all, I knew something had to be done. 

I immediately recognized these different ruts because as an adult reader, I have experienced all of them myself at one time or another… 

Hopping from One Book to Another

After a couple days of observation from a distance, I noticed that Minh held a different novel in his hands while his eyes often roamed the room during every independent reading time. I’ve always been one to read multiple books at a time, but flipping through five different fantasy novels in a two day period without settling in to one equates to a rut of sorts. At first, I wanted to see if Minh would find his own way out of the rut, but eventually I knew he needed support.

Reading the Same Book Over and Over

During a conference later that day, Elsa wearily told me that she was rereading a certain book for the third time because she just didn’t think she would love a new book in the same way. She was just not willing to give a new book a chance. I completely understand that thought. When I finished Carlos Ruiz Zafon’s Shadow of the Wind a few months ago, I found that I had the same feeling. I was overcome with sadness when I realized I was no longer able to look forward to immersing myself info Ruiz Zafon’s 1945 Barcelona. My deep love for one book prevented me from seeking out another. Finding a new book that I would equally love was just an unthinkable thought. So, when Elsa professed her love of this one particular book and hesitation to read anything else, I knew she had fallen into a rut and needed help to find her way out.

Having a Hard Time Picking a Book

Once I ended my conference with Elsa, I noticed Alex was spending quite a bit of time in the classroom library pulling a book off the shelf, flipping through a few pages, gently placing it back on the shelf, and then repeating the process over and over.  Watching him go through this process reminded me of myself as a young reader. For years, I was a student who would just not pick up a book. Similar to my current student, I knew how to read, always scored well on every single measure of reading at the time, and loved hearing stories read aloud. However, I was just not interested in independently reading on my own. Teachers would give me books and tell me to “just read this one,” but that never worked. Each time the teacher wandered off, so did my mind, away from the book forced on me. Back then, I needed a special kind of support to fall in love with a book, and I knew Alex needed that same kind of special care.

Falling into a rut is actually not uncommon for many readers. Rather than telling students what to read, calling for an outside intervention, or throwing my hands in the air in frustration, I knew the most effective way to address these reading ruts was to problem solve- and, not to problem solve for my students, but to do so with them. So, I set off to tackle the reading rut alongside my students. 

Screen Shot 2019-11-11 at 9.35.46 PMWhile I firmly believe that sitting down side by side with a student to confer is the most effective way to problem solve, because a few students in my class had fallen into a rut while many others had found consistent success in sustaining reading during our independent reading time, I thought it might be helpful to start with a mini lesson enlisting the support of my readers who were happily settling in with a good book each day.  As we sat down for the mini lesson that day, students’ eyes and minds fell on the chart seen here. A few started whispering to each other, heads began nodding, and one even stated, “Oh good! I really need this today!” before we started. 


After my readers read the phrases on the chart, I asked them to raise their hands if they either can relate or have ever experienced anything like this before. Slowly, one reader raised a hand. Then another. And another. Since I am a part of our reading community, I raised my hand as well. Eventually, all hands in class ended up in the air. I continued the session.

“Fifth graders, as you can see, falling into a reading rut is a normal part of being a reader.” I went on to explain that when we find ourselves in a rut, one way to help ourselves come out of it is to problem solve. Sometimes we can problem solve on our own, while other times, we need to turn to a fellow reader to help us get through it. And, what works for one reader, might not work for another. Sometimes, we have to try multiple strategies to help work our way out of a reading rut.

I then turned the lesson over to my class. I asked students to share what they had done in the past to overcome a reading rut. So many great suggestions were offered. 

“I came out of a rut once by thinking about a book I read and really liked, and then decided to read another one from the same author.” 

“I did the opposite! I decided to shake it up and try something completely new! I actually found a new series I loved when I did that.”

Screen Shot 2019-11-11 at 9.35.57 PM“When I’m not sure what to read, I look at our class recommendation board. That is always so helpful. I actually found my current book that way” 


Idea after idea from students just kept coming in.  Once the lesson ended, and students were invited to go off to try some of these new ideas to overcome their ruts, even more notes with ideas from students were added to the chart. 

Before I settled in to confer for the period, I stood back and just observed. I was interested to see what students would do on their own without my intervention. As students started slowly settling in to read on the bean bags or cozy up with a book at their tables, I noticed that Minh started conferring on his own with another reader. As I listened in, I heard the two students problem solving together to help Minh find his way out of a rut. So, I decided to move on to confer with another student. 

I sat down on the floor next to Elsa, my reader who had a hard time letting go of her recent beloved book. Her beloved book was sitting next to her on top of her reader’s notebook while she was reading the preview blurb on the back of another book. “May I join you?” I asked.

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“Sure. I’m thinking I might try out this book. Lenny recommended it, and she and I usually like the same books, so I’m going to give it a try. The back sounds really interesting” 

I smiled, gave her a nod, and affirmed her decision to seek out advice from a friend to try to move herself forward as a reader. Then, I turned my attention to Alex. 



Alex still found himself in the classroom library going through the ineffective process of pulling a book off the shelf, flipping through a few pages, gently placing the book back on the shelf, and then repeating the process.

“Hey Alex, how’s it going?”  Alex looked up at me, slowly shook his head, and said, “I think I’ve tried everything. I still can’t find a book.” 

What Alex didn’t yet know, and what I hadn’t yet offered was that earlier that day, I spent a few minutes gathering a preview stack for Alex to peruse. I first learned about this idea in Donalyn Miller’s Reading in the Wild. Offering a student a preview stack of books that reflects their interests is a strategy that I have called upon many times in the past. I offer the stack based on a student’s interest, and the student now has a more curated selection of books from which to choose. 

So, I invited Alex to walk over to the back counter where the stack was sitting. Directly taking a line I once heard Donalyn Miller say at a conference, I picked up the stack, looked at Alex, and said, “These books made me think of you.” 

Alex took the book stack, and after a little more conversation about each book, he found a comfortable spot, picked up the first book in the stack, and started his preview. 

Like adult readers, student readers find themselves in ruts from time to time for different reasons. To find a way out of the rut, what works for one reader may not work for another. 

The important thing to keep in mind is that working out of a rut is usually not a one-time fix it kind of situation. It’s an ongoing process. Sometimes, all it takes is a problem solving conversation. Other times, it takes much more. Did my readers work their way out of their ruts? I’ll find out next week when we’re back in class and go from there.


Ahmed, Sara K. and Harvey Daniels. 2015. Upstanders: How to Engage Middle School Hearts and Minds with Inquiry. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Miller, Donalyn. 2013. Reading in the Wild: The Book Whisperer’s Keys to Cultivating Lifelong Reading Habits. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
With a little over 20 years in education, Christina Nosek has worked as a special education instructional aide, classroom teacher, K-5 literacy coach, K-5 reading specialist, and staff developer. Along with Kari Yates, she is the coauthor of To Know and Nurture a Reader: Conferring with Confidence and Joy from Stenhouse Publishers and the Conferring with Readers Quick Reference Guide from NCTE. Christina currently spends her days as a fifth grade teacher and staff development provider in the San Francisco Bay Area. You can follow her education Tweets at @ChristinaNosek,  classroom literacy stories on Instagram at @ChristinaBayArea, and longer thoughts on her blog at cnosekliteracy.com


Read-to-Write-to-Read: Texts as Sources. Texts as Mentors.

By Morgan Davis, 2010 CCIRA Presenter

When I first started teaching about mentor texts, it was for an audience of teachers whose first question was, “What’s a mentor text?”  Now, more than a decade later, our collective learning allows for a different entry point: Because while we might call a text we are using for instructional purposes a “mentor,” not every interaction with a text is intended to apprentice us to the craft and content of writing. 

When a text inspires a story, further research, an editorial or any other dialogue about the topic, whether written or discussed, when it compels us to move the ideas beyond the text and make them into something new, it is a source, not a mentor.  

This distinction is the heart of work that JLA—Jeffco’s Literacy Association—is doing this month in a book study using the Global Read Aloud picture-book text set from Yuyi Morales.  

We began our “Books and Brews” book club seated between two pool tables in the back room of a bar in Lakewood.  A round of introductions, appetizers, and a crack of a book-spine later, and we were immersed in Yuyi’s portrayal of Frida Kahlo in Viva Frida.  

Texts as Sources

Upon our first read of Viva Frida, I gave my Spanish skills a much-needed workout, alternating between the printed English and scripted Spanish text on each page.  Less than sixty words altogether, we let them and the book’s combination of illustrations and photographs wash over us. We shared our first reactions, which ranged from wanting to see the pictures up close to conversations about whether this was a work of fiction or nonfiction to our initial “gist” of the story’s message. 

Our second reading, which began with us all reading it aloud together, allowed us to take a closer look at the author’s decision-making, to clarify ideas that had been sparked by our reading.  We followed characters across pages, analyzed the evolution of the artists’ media, and made inferences about the woman portrayed in the pages. 

Screen Shot 2019-11-05 at 6.13.49 AMWith our third reading, I asked everyone to independently make a list of five-to-ten key words from the text, words that were either stated explicitly, like “dream” or “live,” or
those that were implied, like “playful,” and “discovery.”  Sharing these allowed us to make connections, generating new ideas, like “innocence,” and “coming-of-age.”
Quick-writing to one of these words became equally generative, as we explored our understandings of what this text was really about.

Through this process—reading, thinking, talking, and writing—we learned things about Frida Kahlo, from the text and from each other.  Things that were confirmed or clarified in the author’s note.  

Things that allowed me—in the week that followed our first meeting—to appreciate the scenes in Coco that show Frida Kahlo as an unapologetic and creative spirit, even in death.  Things that made me connect as I sang (and danced) along to the song “This is Me” from the Greatest Showman as the chorus describes being bruised and brave, and making no apologies for being who we are.  

Things that allowed us to connect to the human experience revealed in the book’s poetry.  Things that lingered in our consciousness long after our time together was over. Things that brought us to the page to write about Yuyi Morales and about the topics and themes in her books.

We charted what we noticed about ourselves as readers and writers when content is the focus, the inspiration, the topic of conversation and of our learning. 


Texts as Mentors

Screen Shot 2019-11-05 at 6.16.53 AMThis conversation about topics became a perfect segue to our next venture into Yuyi’s books.  We started with the first of Katie Wood Ray’s three questions that can guide immersion in any writing study: What kinds of topics does Yuyi address with her picture books? (Study Driven, page 125).  

We listed topics we had explored in reading these books as sources and then—and here is the shift—we began to apprentice ourselves to her work:  We brainstormed what topics we might choose.  Topics that could be handled in the kind of ways that Yuyi’s are.  Topics that capture specific aspects of an author’s culture, like the lifestyle of Lucha Libre in Niño Wrestles the World, the biographical sketch of Frida Kahlo, and the experience of immigrants.  Topics that convey universal themes, from finding home in unlikely places and explaining natural phenomena to the experience of wandering, discovery, and imagining a different life.   

Overall, we recognized that Yuyi’s books do what we have come to expect of picture books: they express what it means to be a child, providing a space for children (and adults) to make sense of the world within and around them through story. 

We next read Yuyi’s Dreamers to help us expand our noticings through the lens of Katie Wood Ray’s other immersion questions: What kinds of work does it seem like [Yuyi] must do to produce this kind of writing? and How does Yuyi craft these books so that they are compelling for readers? (Study Driven, p. 125).  We annotated the text with our noticings and added things to the list that we had noticed in other books in our stack. 

Of all the things we noticed, I chose the structure of her text to model a “close study” and then a “try-it”:

First, we noticed Yuyi writes:  

“We became… We became… You and I became… Someday we will become… but right now…We are…”  

Then we worked to name what it was that we noticed.  In this case, a pattern revealed in repetition of a phrase using the word “became” before a break in the pattern that shifts to present and then to future tense. 

Finally—and I think this is my favorite part—we put pen to paper and simply gave it a go:

We became students before we were old enough to ride bikes.  We became graduates that couldn’t imagine leaving the classrooms we’d called home for so long. We became teachers who had their own classrooms before we were teachers who turned our classrooms over to our students. Someday we’ll become people who leave the walls of our schools behind, but right now, we fill them with magic and watch as our students become our future.  We are teachers. 

And just like before, we charted what we noticed about ourselves as readers and writers when considering texts as mentors; we reflected on the process of pairing writing with reading when craft is the focus, the inspiration, the topic of conversation and of our learning. 


We write about things we read to build and share ideas.  We write like what we read to get better at building and sharing ideas with the world. 

Despite our tendencies to define which comes first—text as source or text as mentor—let’s not allow this to become complicated.  I have spent time with students who, during a study of the art of opinion writing, have found authentic purpose in seeking sources to validate and elaborate their claims. I have seen students who were inspired by their excitement for an article about dung beetles come to the page to demand action and evoke social change.  

This work has great potential for informing units of study that bring reading and writing workshops together.  And while there may not be a single entry point, there is a difference. Let’s notice it. Let’s name it. And let’s continue to encourage the exploration—in ourselves and our students—of authentic ways that readers and writers interact with text as sources and texts as mentors.

These ideas began percolating after a session with Ruth Culham (aka The Writing Thief) at #CCIRA16.  Read the original post here. 

Morgan Davis is a literacy consultant and K-6 Instructional Coach in Jefferson County, Colorado.  She regularly presents at CCIRA and is currently piloting this book club about texts as sources and texts as mentors with JLA, Jefferson County’s local literacy council. You can join in the conversation @MorganDavisLit on Facebook and can follow Morgan as she explores teaching and learning, slices of life, and her own writing processes on Twitter @melizdav and through “It’s About Making Space.” Also, watch for literacy classes based on these and other topics coming to the metro area next summer.


Literacy: What Comes To Mind?

By Teresa Brown

What comes to mind when you think of literacy?

Most dictionaries use “the ability to read and write” to define literacy.  As I’ve grown in my instructional practice working with gifted learners and learners with challenges, literacy has come to mean much more.  My own working definition is this: 

Literacy is the ability to learn using multiple modalities and communicate in a variety of ways so that one’s ideas are understood by an audience.

Our staff participated in a book study a few years ago to help improve our literacy instruction in all subject areas and determine common agreements about our work with students.  We used Mike Schmoker’s Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning as the springboard for our work. He identifies four critical instructional components which teachers should consider as they develop learning opportunities:

  • Reading
  • Writing 
  • Discussion
  • Movement

I’ve found that these are a great foundation for literacy instruction that reaches beyond simply reading and writing and integrates the idea of social-emotional skill development as well. When I coach teachers, we talk about intentionality in integrating all four components into each class period, regardless of the level being taught. 

Screen Shot 2019-10-29 at 8.10.32 AM
Courtesy of Tim Mossholder @Unsplash

Cooperative Learning Opportunities

Use learning opportunities in your classroom that require students to read, write, discuss, and move with intention to build their capacity in interpersonal skills they’ll need as they grow. Here’s an example: 

Provide a reading task before beginning and ask students to quietly develop some ideas around it.  Group students in a way that makes sense (assigned groups, number off, etc.) for your group. Have students move to each posted open-ended question and discuss their ideas with their small group, jotting down responses to the questions about the reading using complete sentences, moving from question to question after a specified period of time. Have a member of each group share out what is jotted down on their page. Then discuss as a class or use the jotted notes to create a class-created written response. 

This can be used in all subject areas and can be modified for younger learners as well as older learners by changing the reading task, the response format, or the discussion framework itself.  Using structures such as a jigsaw, variations on pair-share, stand up-hand up-pair up, structured research, and other cooperative learning opportunities are intentional ways to get students to read, write, discuss, and move in every lesson, every class period.  

Explicit Listening and Speaking Instruction

This is an area we often forget requires specific instruction, assuming students have figured out how to listen to learn, can talk with one another, and speak on a topic.  

PPIRA hosted a literacy conference in Colorado Springs a few years ago where Erik Palmer, author of several books on speaking and listening instruction and digital literacy (pvlegs.com), was one of the speakers. His session set off a string of instructional ideas that a colleague and I implemented the week after the conference. 

We began to embed explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills throughout the day using distributed practice. We saw wonderful growth in our students’ ability to communicate with one another and present their ideas to an audience as the year progressed. Our intentional instruction impacted student writing too, for when we gave students the opportunity to orally write before drafting, their ideas became more fully formed after receiving specific feedback from their peers on their initial ideas. 

We encouraged specials teachers to teach speaking and listening skills explicitly in their classes as well while students were presenting their music or dramatic compositions, reflecting on their art pieces, providing post-game commentary in PE, and discussing language-based learning experiences. Our experiment showed that speaking and listening skills are critical to literacy across the board.

Common Agreements

Develop common agreements among your staff or even just your teaching team about how you will incorporate literacy instruction in every class, every day using common vocabulary and strategies.  Determine specifics around reading, writing, discussion, and movement. Discuss how you’ll incorporate specific speaking and listening instruction and what social-emotional needs could be addressed.  This intentional planning will enhance learning for the students you serve.

The bottom line is this: Literacy is about learning how to gather needed information and communicating information to others. Providing intentional opportunities for students to connect to their learning while practicing literacy skills makes for richer learning experiences that they will transfer to other areas of their lives as they grow.

Teresa Brown is the Dean of Student Support and Director of the Center for Gifted Resources at Academy for Advanced and Creative Learning, a K-8 public charter school in Colorado Springs, Colorado with a focus on gifted education.  She has presented on topics related to supporting gifted learners in the classroom for the Colorado League of Charter Schools, Colorado Association for Gifted and Talented, CCIRA, and at Denver Comic Con.  Teresa also serves as an officer in PPIRA. She practices self-care by fly fishing, practicing yoga, and listening to a variety of podcasts and audio books.