Using Robust Practices to Nurture Successful, Engaged Readers

By Judy Wallis

We have so much research to show that many factors contribute to the growth of capable and confident readers: a coherent curriculum, robust teaching practices, the volume of reading, access to high-quality, engaging texts, productive talk, and a supportive classroom context (Duke & Pearson, 2002). All of these provide the very foundation upon which exemplary teaching and student success rest. There is also wide agreement that teachers who differentiate instruction ensure greater student success. Because students differ in their knowledge, skills, and cultural background, individual differences present challenges for both readers and teachers. While teachers and students faced unprecedented challenges during the past year, both continued to learn and grow. One of the most important things I learned from working over the years with Regie Routman (2007) is a whole-part-whole approach results in greater gains for learners in all areas but particularly in the area of comprehension. The challenge, then, is to ensure that students have instruction that ensures they develop the “flexibility and adaptability of their actions as they read” (Afflebach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008, 368) so that they move from effortful and deliberate use of strategies to automatic use of skills in the service of understanding.  

Gradual Release of Responsibility

We know from years of research, planning teaching using the gradual release of responsibility is most successful in teaching comprehension (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983). There are three regions of responsibility within this model. The first region is mostly the teacher as modeler and demonstrator; in the third, the responsibility shifts mostly to the student; and in the middle, teacher and student share responsibility. For students to arrive successfully at full responsibility, shifts in participation occur that include increasing participation by the reader and well-planned scaffolding by the teacher (Au & Raphael, 1998). The teacher’s role is to determine when and how these shifts occur and what support a reader might need.

Too often, the middle region is either skipped or shortened, which results in students’ lack of long-term success. When this occurs, teaching is often planned around a narrow, isolated skills approach that makes learning harder rather than easier. To ensure success, teachers need to consider learners’ potential independence with a task and the probability that learners can transfer that learning to a new and similar task (Cambourne, 2001). 

Two Approaches to Supporting Students’ Growth in Comprehension

The challenge for teachers supporting striving students is finding the best way to approach gaps in learning. For example, one approach is to take an isolated or part-to-whole approach in which the teacher focuses narrowly on one skill at a time. This parsing approach has enormous appeal in that it uses the premise that it is more manageable for students, and they will put the parts/skills together taught over time to become successful readers. However, the skills may not make sense to the reader in the absence of the whole (Perkins, 2009). Too often, using this approach results in never demonstrating how the parts “look” in a whole task/performance. The other approach to learning is first situating learning within a whole task/performance, focusing on the part, and finally demonstrating the part within the whole. As Routman (2018) notes, whole-part-whole teaching needs to become part of our beliefs system about teaching and learning. 

Using this approach, along with the gradual release of responsibility, results in much more successful teaching and learning and is actually more efficient. 

If, for example, students are striving to be more successful making inferences, we could explain what an inference is and then send them off to make inferences in a text. Students may understand what inferring is, but they may lack the procedural (how) and conditional (what) knowledge needed to actually apply the strategy within the performance of reading a text.  On the contrary, we would likely be more successful using a whole-part-whole approach by situating inferring in the “whole” performance of reading. Too often, we try to teach an isolated skill (e.g., determining character’s feelings) without identifying it as an inference and what it looks like and sounds like when we read a text. Duke and Pearson (2002) suggest students need explicit modeling of strategies to become skilled readers followed by a great deal of time reading. Here’s an example of what whole-part-whole teaching might look like. It foregrounds inferring but nests it in a real text, includes explicit modeling, and offers students opportunities to engage in collaborative use.

Teacher: We are going to be reading a terrific book today. The title of the book is Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes. As readers, we do many things to make sense of and monitor what we read by listening to the thoughts inside our heads.  Today, we will focus on one particular strategy as we read—inferring. Inferring is when the author doesn’t tell us everything, and we as readers must combine our own background knowledge (BK) with the clues the author provides in the text (TC). So, inferring is really like teamwork or partnering with the author. I’m going to start reading and making inferences as we go. But before I begin to model my thinking, turn and talk with a thinking partner about what you understand about what a reader does to infer. 

Students: Turn and talk—teacher listens in. 

Teacher: Let’s have a couple of you share what inferring is. [Students share.] So, we all agree that inferring is using our background knowledge along with text clues to understand a text.

Teacher: (Begins reading) Ah, the text says that Chrysanthemum’s name was “absolutely perfect” when she was born, and as she grew, Chrysanthemum thought so, too. I am inferring she was pretty happy her parents named her that. [Reading on.]

(Teacher may record inferences on an anchor chart.)

Hmmm . . . I’m inferring things are changing when Chrysanthemum goes to school. Her friends start making fun of her name, and she’s feeling pretty unhappy about her name. [Reading on.]

Let’s talk about what the author says and what we can infer from the text clues: “She walked as slowly as she could. She dragged her feet.” Turn and talk about what you are inferring using the text clues and your own background knowledge and experiences.

Students: Turn and talk—teacher listens in. 

Teacher: As we read on, I’m going to give you opportunities to turn and talk about the inferences you are making. 

Teacher: Before we read on, let’s look at some of the inferences we made as we read. In every one of them, we used our background knowledge and the text clues to help us understand the story. So, inferring is an important strategy that readers use in everything they read. We make inferences when the author leaves a gap for us to fill. But, we always use the text to support what we are inferring. 

Teacher: Continues reading the remainder of the text and providing opportunities for collaborative use through turn and talk.

Teacher: Let’s review all the inferences we made. We found places in the text where we as readers had to fill gaps the author left. As readers, you will do the same thing as you read independently today; think about what you are understanding and when and why you need to be partner with the author. As readers, we are aware of our inner conversation that helps us monitor our understanding.

This example shows how we start with the whole (reading a text), focus on a part (inferring), and then refocus on the whole (reading a text). The reminder to use what was learned is essential as is “daily access to irresistible books” (Harvey & Ward, 2017, 88). Teachers often use a part-to-whole approach with striving students, which leaves them on their own to understand how the parts fit together. While an atomistic approach sounds like a time-saving one, it is actually inefficient and results in learners waiting to put the parts into the whole performance of reading. Perkins (2009) calls this principle of learning: “play the whole game” (8). One important idea to keep in mind is that we watch for the hard parts to foreground them to strengthen learners’ potential for independent use. 

Scaffolding and Talk

Scaffolding and talk play key roles in working with students both in accelerating learning and addressing gaps. In the previous classroom example, we can imagine places where scaffolding and additional opportunities where student-teacher and peer-to-peer talk might be both necessary and productive. While originating from Vygotsky’s (1978) zone of proximal development (the gap between what the learner can do independently and with assistance), the term scaffolding comes from the work of Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1978). Scaffolds are temporary. Pearson (personal communication) suggests that we always have a plan for taking down a scaffold. The point of a scaffold is not to make the task easier but rather to create just the right conditions for a learner can be successful. That means we have to be “in tune” with learners. Often, we provide too much support, resulting in learned helplessness. I think of scaffolding as climbing a rope ladder. As teachers, we move one knot/scaffold at a time, providing only the necessary support.

When working with readers, and particularly striving readers, instead of identifying specific gaps, too often we use a checklist, part-part-part approach. Research has demonstrated that reading is a complex process, and there’s little evidence to support that teaching the single components of reading one-by-one leads to gains (Oakhill et al, 2019). Another important consideration is the extent to which a student has initially engaged in modeled instruction and had opportunities for supported practice. The gradual release of responsibility is key here because too often students move from teacher-focused instruction to independent use, skipping the valuable area of shared responsibility and coached performance. When this occurs, learners don’t have the value of those temporary supports that ensure they will later be able to successfully carry out and transfer learning to new situations. 

Scaffolding is largely dependent on talk—both that of a teacher to student and also peer to peer. Vygotsky (1978) and Johnston (2004, 2012) demonstrate how individual thought is created through the process of thinking, talking, and acting together with others. We know that when learning is scaffolded through talk, students’ understanding of both the process (procedural knowledge) and the product (comprehension) are strengthened. Teachers use talk to facilitate and support learning, and students use talk in exploratory ways (Barnes, 1992) to develop and revise their thinking. Instead of defaulting to the traditional Initiate, Response, Evaluate (IRE) pattern (Cazden, 1988), teachers can shift form an interrogational stance to one that incorporates much more student talk. Allington (2002) found that exemplary teachers encouraged and modeled this type of talk. Not only does talk support and promote learning, it also offers teachers valuable opportunities to gain insights into students’ understanding and their gaps and misconceptions.

We know that reading is complex, that teaching reading is complex. However, when we implement practices and structures that we know make a difference, we uncomplicate our teaching and increase our students’ potential for success.  Some years ago, I wrote an op-ed about not forgetting joy. As we strive to support learners in these challenging times, we must stay focused on what we know works and the exemplary practices that help our students grow into strong, successful, and engaged readers . . . and the joyful experience of being present to witness extraordinary moments of learning. 


Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61(5). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Allington, R. L. (2002). What I’ve learned about effective reading instruction. Phi Delta Kappan. 83 (10), 740-47.

Au, K.H., & Raphael, T.E. (1998). Curriculum and teaching in literature-based programs. In T.E. Raphael & K.H. Au (Eds.), Literature-based Instruction: Reshaping the

Curriculum. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.

Barnes, D. (1992). From Communication to Curriculum, Second Edition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Cambourne, B.L. (2001). Why do some students fail to learn? Ockham’s Razon and the conditions of learning. Reading Teacher, 54 (8). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 

Cazden, C. B. (1988). Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction, Third Edition. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Harvey, S., & Ward, A. (2017). From Striving to Thriving: How to Grow Confident, Capable Readers. New York, NY: Scholastic. 

Johnston, P. H. (2012). Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. 

Johnston, P. H. (2004). Choice Words: How Our Language Affects Children’s Learning. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. 

Oakhill, J., Cain, K., & Elbro, C. (2019). Reading comprehension and reading comprehension difficulties. In D. A. Kilpatrick, R. M. Joshi, & R. K. Wagner (Eds.) Reading Development and Difficulties: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Pearson, P.D., & Gallagher, M.C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317–344.

Perkins, D. N. (2009). Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of Teaching Can Transform Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Routman, R. (2007). Teaching Essentials. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Routman, R. (2018). What You Need to Know about Professional Learning. Heinemann Blog.

Wallis, J. (2013). Teachers, don’t forget joy. 

Wood, D., Bruner, J.S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. 17(2). https: //

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Children’s Literature Cited

Henkes, K. (1991). Chrysanthemum. New York, NY: Greenwillow Books.

Judy Wallis has spent the past five decades as a teacher, literacy coach, university instructor, and staff developer. She served two large and diverse Houston-area school districts as director language arts and provided leadership support to literacy coaches for 21 years. Her professional work focuses on reading comprehension, writing, and whole-school/district change through robust literacy instruction and shared beliefs. She has also worked to link research and practice and to nurture and celebrate the strengths in others. In addition to the “Blue Pages” in Conversations with Regie Routman and Comprehension Intervention with Steph Harvey and Anne Goudvis, Judy has authored a number of book chapters and articles. 

Learning About Our Writers and Growing Our Community with Face-to-Face and Virtual Celebrations

By Stacey Shubitz & Lynne R. Dorfman

In a writing workshop, we often find ways to celebrate our writers and their writing throughout their process of imagining, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing their work. We use nonverbal cues – a nod, a thumbs up, a pat on the back, or a smile to acknowledge the small steps students take to create a writing piece. Larger celebrations are important for writers because they give them an opportunity to engage with a new audience, creating excitement and enthusiasm to continue to revise and edit as well as to continue to do the hard work of imagining and creating future writing pieces.  

Face-to-Face Celebrations

In many classrooms, portfolio celebrations occurred once per marking period.  Writers select the piece they wanted to share and their rationale for their choice. Often, this includes an explanation of why the piece is valued. For example, the piece could show how the writer took a risk and tried something new such as a new organizational format or genre. Perhaps it was chosen because the topic was so important to them or they felt it represented their best effort that semester.  Students share their process during portfolio celebrations, giving the audience a closer look at their work. In this way, the teacher, the writer, and the writing community gains some insights into a writer’s identity, not just the individual piece of writing.

There are so many ways to organize a celebration of writing. At the end of the year, Lynne secured the gym for two hours and had tables and chairs arranged café style. Parents contributed tablecloths and flower arrangements. Students sat with their family members and friends to share their writing. Sometimes, students collaborated to share their poems for the entire group. Mics for speakers were provided and copies of the poems for audience participation. The audience was instructed to snap their fingers (1950s Beatnik coffeehouse style) as applause. Guests for this event received a personal invitation created by the authors and snail mailed complete with a return reply. In this way, writers could experience yet another real-world writing experience.

Like the Isabella Gardner Museum in Boston, you might offer an artist-in-residence program where local writers of newspapers, magazines, and authors and illustrators of children’s books can visit to share their thoughts about their own writing processes and provide feedback for students’ final drafts. Here, students can be encouraged to enter writing contests and/or submit their pieces to local newspapers, community and school newspapers, children’s magazines such as Stone Soup, completely written and illustrated by kids from 8 to 13.  Finding places to publish and acquire new audiences is a way to celebrate our students’ writing. 

Students can create a poster of their work, a biographical sketch of their life as a writer, related artwork, photographs, and artifacts that help to highlight a piece of writing. These posters can be displayed around the room so that students can carousel to read and to comment. Students can create a QR Code to connect their audience to a tape recording of the author reading their piece aloud. Half the class will remain in their seats and continue to write independently to reduce circulation problems. Students should be able to take their time so they can offer responses on sticky notes at the bottom of the poster page (Be sure to leave some space!) or use note cards provided by the teacher to respond and drop the envelope with the notecard inside on the author’s desk. 

Another popular celebration in elementary school is the author’s chair. Reading a final draft or published piece is a great way for students to build confidence and self-esteem by receiving feedback from audience members. A student writer volunteers to sit in the author’s chair; he is not assigned to do so. The writing that is shared has already gone through revisions and edits. A special chair is designated as the author’s chair – a rocker, a director’s chair, a spare teacher’s chair.  Usually, the audience gathers on a carpet in front of the chair to listen to the reading. Audience members share praise, ask questions, and offer suggestions for revision. Authors may respond to the comments they receive. The teacher’s role is to model the feedback they hope their student writers will give to each author. Not only does the author’s chair provide a wider audience for student writers who want to share and receive feedback than a traditional teacher-student or peer conference, it helps all students develop listening, reflection, and critical thinking skills. 

Virtual Celebrations

Many teachers are still teaching students remotely, which means writing celebrations need to be reimagined for the virtual world. 

Consider a virtual author’s chair in a couple of ways. First, gather your class on video conferencing software so each student can “have the mic” to read their piece. If you’d prefer to lead an asynchronous author’s chair, then use Flipgrid. Students can record their writing aloud and peers can stop by to leave a comment after hearing their writing read aloud.

Celebrate process, rather than product, by leading a virtual Author Q&A using video conferencing software. Invite students to share an excerpt from their piece that represents something they worked diligently on as a writer. Encourage them to talk about the strategies they used or a risk they took to bring their writing to life. 

Utilize an online board, such as Padlet, for celebrations. You might lead a virtual gallery walk by creating a Padlet board of your students’ finished writing pieces. You could use Padlet as an online portfolio tool by allowing students to save anything to their portfolio that reflects their writing process, research process, evidence of collaboration with a peer, or their finished product. Then, provide time for students to work in small groups to share their Padlet portfolios with their peers. (If your school doesn’t utilize Padlet, you can use whatever learning management system your school uses so students can share and comment on each other’s work.

Entertain the idea of creating a podcast to celebrate students’ writing. You can create several episodes which invite students to come on to read their writing and talk about their writing lives and process. Once the podcast is live, invite members of your school community and caregivers to listen to the episodes!


Writing is not easy!  It takes a lot of time, patience, and plain hard work! Writing workshop celebrations give students several sessions each year to share a piece of writing, receive feedback from classmates, friends, family members, and teachers, and just have some fun!  Writing celebrations help to reinforce strategies good writers use and highlight ways in which authors write and problem solve. Children learn from each other as the writing community cultivates a sense of pride and accomplishment. Looking forward to sharing their writing in the author’s chair motivates writers to work hard during independent writing time. Writers write to communicate their ideas with others. Writers need and want an audience – that’s why writing shares are crucial to engagement and perseverance. Writing celebrations can provide a wide variety of audiences and help writers continue to do the hard work of writing every day. Finally, writing celebrations will foster a love for writing and help students imagine the possibilities for their craft as they listen to each other’s writing and receive feedback in these positive environments. Isn’t that what we want for all our writers?

About the Authors

Stacey Shubitz and Lynne R. Dorfman are the co-authors of Jump Into Writing (Zaner-Bloser, 2021) and Welcome to Writing Workshop: Engaging Today’s Students with a Model That Works (Stenhouse, 2019). 

Lynne is an adjunct professor for Arcadia University and K-8 literacy consultant. She is a co-editor of PA Reads: Journal of Keystone State Literacy Association and co-president of KSLA Brandywine/Valley Forge. Lynne is co-author of many books including Grammar Matters: Lessons, Tips, and Conversations Using Mentor Texts, K-6 and A Closer Look: Learning More About Our Students with Formative Assessment, K-6. She blogs at and MiddleWeb.

Stacey is a literacy consultant and a former elementary school teacher. In addition to the above-mentioned titles, she’s the author of Craft Moves: Lesson Sets for Teaching Writing with Mentor Texts and the co-author of Day by Day: Refining Writing Workshop Through 180 Days of Reflective Practice. She blogs at Two Writing Teachers and can be found on Twitter @sshubitz.

Using Inquiry-Rich Invitations to Ignite Word Learning Across ALL Grades

By Pam Koutrakos

Looking to counteract the current level of stress in the classroom? Wondering about ways to reinvigorate spelling and vocabulary learning? Try extending an invitation… specifically, an invitation for students to actively explore and investigate words! Teachers can use open-ended questions to invite students to discover more about featured sounds, letters, patterns, parts, and words! The playfulness inherent in student-directed exploration acts as “learning mise en place,” setting the conditions for word learning that sticks. These joyful opportunities are not only beneficial for young word learners. Playful, exploratory learning makes sense and matters for humans of all ages! Through this stance, teachers are able to use inquiry-rich invitations to:

  • spark curiosity
  • jumpstart engagement
  • build momentum 
  • nurture creativity and critical thinking

These practices are substantiated by researchers and practitioners. Zaretta Hammond’s work teaches that the brain craves and needs students to be active constructors of learning. Peter Gray’s researched insights highlight the vast cognitive and socio-emotional benefits of play. Ellin Keene’s work around engagement echoes the importance of open-ended and student-initiated learning experiences. Kristi Mraz and Stephanie Parsons remind us of how we open access when we build the structure and framework for learning through discovery. 

What follows are actionable ideas for infusing inquiry-rich invitations into word study. Each creates opportunities for students to feel invested in learning more about sounds, letters, patterns, parts, and words themselves! 

Emerging Word Learners 

Emerging word learners are often found in preschools and primary-grade classrooms. They are naturally curious and need little encouragement to wonder and explore. Creating inquiry-rich invitations for these learners usually involves curating open-ended materials (loose parts) and providing opportunities to manipulate, tinker, contemplate, and create. Common examples of open-ended materials include readily-available resources found outside: sticks, pebbles, acorns, and shells. Additionally, other “loose part” options can be found in most early childhood and elementary classrooms: beads, buttons, counters, blocks, and more. For certain word-themed invitations, teachers might also set out images, letter manipulatives, word cards, etc. Prompts and questions (like those listed below) invite students to contemplate ideas and construct learning by purposefully and creatively using the materials that have been set out. Follow-up instruction and feedback then builds upon and enhances all that was initially learned. Balancing opportunities for discovery with explicit teaching results in deeper and more nuanced understanding. 

Sample Invitations:

These inquiry-fueled questions encourage learners to explore sounds, letters, names, and resource tools. 

  • What do you notice about the sounds you hear?
  • What can you discover about these letters?
  • What can you make with these letters?
  • How could you sort these… (letters, sounds, words)?
  • What’s the same? What’s different? (letters, sounds, words)
  • When do we see these words? Where could we use them? 
  • Why, how, and when would these tools be useful? 

In this classroom, content-aligned Reggio-styled provocations are set out to spark discovery. Students are welcome to explore materials independently or with peers. 

Tip: There’s no need to purchase anything new. Utilize and repurpose readily available loose parts and/or natural materials. These are perfect for word-themed invitations. This Reggio Routines mini-chart (Koutrakos, 2019) is a student-facing tool that can be shared after introducing this kind of learning to students. 

Developing Word Learners 

Very often, students in mid and upper elementary grades are actively developing their word knowledge. Since student-initiated discovery builds interest, motivation, and investment, it makes sense that teachers in these settings would also incorporate inquiry-rich invitations into word study. For example, instead of handing students a list of vocabulary words or directing them to look up definitions, students can instead jumpstart meaningful learning by investigating words/word parts and then sharing their findings with classmates. In as little as ten to fifteen minutes, students can explore sounds, recognize patterns, and begin to develop theories. Additionally, these efficient experiences offer the chance to delve into multiple meanings of words, synonyms, antonyms, cognates, and more. In the days that follow, teachers can then capitalize on this momentum by following-up with explicit instruction, guidance, and opportunities for additional practice. 

Sample Invitations:

These thought-provoking prompts intend to help students actively investigate prioritized vocabulary, words, spelling patterns, and processes for learning: 

  • How will you explore these (letters, patterns, parts, words)? 
  • What similarities and differences do you see? What could this mean? 
  • What theories can you create (and support) about the letters, sounds, and parts of these words?
  • What words “go” with this topic? How are they connected? Which are most important? 
  • Are there any more interesting and precise words with very similar meanings? Which words have very different meanings? 
  • How could these discoveries help you as you read? Write? 
  • How could you share what you discovered? 

This remote-classroom artifact was created as part of a mini-inquiry that intended to jumpstart initial ideas around inflected endings. First, students had the opportunity to explore ideas and share knowledge. Then, the teacher guided the class as they delved further into learning about these affixes.

Tip: Strategically design prompts: ideally, these invitations are flexible enough to be used — and reused— with a variety of patterns and words. Open-ended questions (like those listed above) encourage students to investigate and discover more about words and word parts. Over time, these often become “habit of mind” questions students ask themselves. These two mini-charts: Sort It! Alike or Different and Question Craze (Koutrakos, 2019) are student-facing tools that can be shared after an introductory lesson on mini-inquiries. They remind students of their role in activating their own learning and supporting peers’ understandings. 

Extending Word Learners

Although time is always a consideration, perhaps the creative use of each minute is most essential when working with middle schoolers and high schoolers. When teachers have one period to integrate all aspects of literacy, high-impact efficiency matters! Content area teachers are also often looking for ways to support understanding and use of domain-specific vocabulary. Authentically embedding word work into all that’s already being done is an effective solution. One example of how to do this is turning “regular” learning stations into conver-stations. For example, in many classrooms, teachers set up different learning experiences, AKA-stations. As students rotate from station to station, small groups actively investigate content area topics by viewing, listening, reading, writing, discussing, building, problem-solving, or creating. With minimal effort, teachers can easily turn these “regular” stations into conver-stations. By doing so, students have repeated and authentic opportunities to infuse domain-specific lingo as they discuss prioritized content— and related wonders, ideas, and takeaways. As an alternative, one station may also simply be presenting an inquiry-rich invitation with some accompanying words to investigate. Less is more: embedding joyful opportunities to explore words never needs to be an extra or add on!

HELPFUL HINT: If the station-rotation model of learning is new for you, check out Dr. Catlin Tucker’s work. Her researched suggestions are incredibly smart and especially helpful during times of remote, hybrid, and blended learning. 

Sample Invitations:

Extending word learners also benefit from delving into word-themed inquiries. Often, these center around affixes, roots, tone, mood, and content-area vocabulary. 

  • How many ways could you strategically sort and categorize these… (patterns, affixes, parts, words)? 
  • What theories can you create about the patterns and parts within these words? How might you clarify, substantiate, or extend these theories? 
  • What other “related” words can you discover? How are they connected? What similarities and differences do you notice? 
  • Where and when will you use what you discovered? 
  • What feelings did you get as you read this piece? What words helped to create that feeling?
  • What words are closely connected to this topic? What words keep coming up in your conversation/reading/writing? Why? 
  • How do you want your reader to react? How could you create this tone? What words will you choose?
  • How could your discoveries contribute to the learning of your classmates? 

 “Which One Doesn’t Belong” is a playful critical thinking routine where students choose which option they believe does not fit – and explain why. It’s important to note that each option represents a correct answer because there are reasons why each could be the outlier. This reading-themed “Which One Doesn’t Belong” conver-station was used to help students collaboratively explore different genres and formats of texts… and the academic language aligned to each. 

Tip: Use ongoing, embedded collaborative inquiry to build community and collective capacity. This Talkin The Talk mini-chart (Koutrakos, 2019) provides a basic understanding of what students do at conver-stations. This Show Off mini-chart (Koutrakos, 2019) is a student-facing tool that can be shared with students after introducing different ways for classmates to teach others what they have learned. 

Essential Follow-up for All Word Learners

Student-driven discovery changes the tone of a classroom. The engagement, excitement, and investment that result from this kind of word play are hard to replicate. Gained insights are vital contributors to overall success. However, please know that these inquiry-rich invitations don’t stand on their own. Teachers also need to strategically nurture, nudge, and deepen initial discoveries. This happens through modeling, direct instruction, and loads of along-the-way feedback. It is the combination of discovery, explicit teaching, and guided learning that yield a deep understanding of the why, what, and how of words and the know-how in how to apply and transfer word knowledge. A commitment to shared ownership recognizes that all members of a class community have the right and responsibility to contribute to collective learning. 

A Final Note

Celebrate the synergy and spirit created through inquiry-rich, collaborative classroom experiences. Widen your lens and reimagine the possibilities for word study. When teachers highlight joy and center students as activators of learning, they simultaneously bolster understanding and create more long lasting success. 

Pam Koutrakos is an educational consultant with Gravity Goldberg, LLC where she works with students, teachers, and administrators PreK- grade 12. She authored Word Study That Sticks: Best Practices K-6 and The Word Study That Sticks Companion: Classroom-Ready Tools for Teachers and Students, K-6. Both include ideas, lessons, resources, and tools for teachers of all subjects. Her third professional text is slated to be released in the coming months. Connect with Pam on Twitter @PamKou and on LinkedIn.

Reflection and Discovery: The Power of Reading Identity in Independent Reading

by  Dr. Jennifer Scoggin and Hannah Schneewind

Over the course of our careers, we have always found reflection a valuable tool in our efforts to match our beliefs to our actions. As young, idealistic, energetic first year teachers, we would often stand in our empty classrooms at the end of the day and reflect on each part of the day.  After a particularly challenging day, our reflections included questions such as: “How did I react in the moment when things went awry? How do I want to handle those moments? What can I do differently tomorrow?”  After a particularly successful day, our questions shifted to: “What did I do that worked today? How can I do that again tomorrow?” As classroom teachers and now as consultants, regardless of how the day goes, our reflective work centers around three key questions of identity:

Who am I as a teacher?  

Who do I want to be as a teacher?  

How do I get there?

Our identities as teachers and learners play a powerful role in how we define (and redefine) ourselves in our work and in the world. Our identities are influenced and shaped in part by those with whom we surround ourselves as well as our school and classroom environments. Our sense of identity guides us to make decisions, to evaluate those decisions and to grow. Our process of becoming the teachers we are today (and the teachers we hope to be tomorrow) is a continuous process of discovery and creation.  

We invite you to take a moment and reflect on your teaching identity.  Think about who you are as a teacher, who you want to be as a teacher and how you are working on getting there.  

Let’s move from thinking about ourselves to thinking about the students in our classrooms. It stands to reason that if our identities as teachers play a key role in our decision making, goals and sense of self-efficacy, the identities of our students must also have a profound impact on their decision making, goals and sense of self-efficacy as readers.

Our readers walk through our doors with literate lives that began before their formal schooling. They have reading identities that are actively developing. Readers’ identities refer to their understanding of what it means to be a particular type of reader, the value they place on reading and how capable students feel as they work to comprehend texts, the value they place on reading (Hall, 2012).  A positive sense of reading identity can inspire more joyful independent reading (Ripp, 2020).  How students learn and how flexibly and confidently students use a range of strategies is influenced both by how they view themselves as readers as well as how they want to be identified by others in the classroom (Hall, 2012, Hall 2010).  Research on students’ academic self-concept delves further into the role of perceptions of competence and difficulty and reveals the ways in which these components are shaped significantly during elementary school (Chapman and Tunmer, 1995).

Reflecting on all of this research and our own experiences, we realized that we wanted to become the kinds of teachers who observe and uncover students’ reading identities and who also are able to talk to students about and nurture their identities. We knew that to get there, we would need more concrete ideas to pursue and a more nuanced working definition to help us name just what we are talking about when we refer to “reading identity.” How did we decide to get there?  By turning to students themselves and asking them to tell us more about themselves as readers.

Over the course of hundreds of reading conferences with students from kindergarten through fifth grade, we listened as students told us the story of their identities as readers.  Using prompts such as “Tell me about yourself as a reader,” and “Who are you as a reader?” to initiate the conversation, we received every response imaginable from shrugs to detailed recounts of a student’s history with the written word.  Over time, we began to notice patterns in students’ responses. We took the words of students and categorized them to develop the a working definition of reading identity.

We define a students’ reading identity as comprised of five aspects: attitude, self-efficacy, habits, book choice and process.  Below is a chart that briefly defines each aspect.

A Working Definition of Reading Identity

AspectDescriptionExamples of what students said
AttitudeA student’s attitude toward reading may be positive or negative. “Reading takes me to different places.”“Sometimes, reading is boring.”“I love reading!  I read all the time!”
Self-efficacyA student’s sense of self-efficacy encompasses how confident they feel in their own abilities. “I’m really good at predicting what is going to happen next.”“I’m bad at reading long books.”“I’m good at remembering everything I learned in a nonfiction book.”
HabitsWhere, how long and with whom the student reads both in and outside of school.“I read at school mostly; at home, I mostly play video games.”“I find the quietest place in my house to read. Sometimes I have to move around until I find a quiet place.”“My older sister reads to me every night.”
Book choiceWhat a student considers when choosing books, such as genre, topic, book length or recommendations.“I like mysteries and fantasy books.”“I chose this book because the librarian recommended it to me and I love astronauts.”“I look at the back to see if the book interests me.”“I flip through the book. If it is too long, I put it back.”
ProcessProcess is the work a student does independently to solve words, read fluently, and comprehend.“I feel sad about the main character’s fight with her best friend.”“When I get to a word I don’t know, I just skip it and keep going.”“I read with gusto. People like to listen to me read.”

Reading identity is not fixed, but fluid and dynamic. As the school year evolves, so might a student’s reading identity. For example, the child who started the year feeling confused when they read chapter books ends the year with multiple strategies for tracking plot. The child who picked only nonfiction books in the beginning falls in love with fantasy. 

As literacy educators, we believe that one of our roles is to uncover the reading identity of our students. We combine what we learn about them as readers with what we know about skills and strategies in order to create relevant, engaging and transferable reading instruction for each child.  Our role is to uncover, reinforce, expand, and in some cases reframe all aspects of students’ reading identities, with the goal of boosting their motivation and, therefore, their success. 

So how do these beliefs and understandings of reading identity transfer to the classroom? To begin incorporating reading identity as a centerpiece of our instruction, we can introduce students to this concept during a whole class inquiry.  As we discuss who we are as readers, we can invite students to think about their identities during these whole class conversations. During independent reading, we can hold individual conferences, which we call Discovery Conferences (Scoggin and Schneewind, 2021), in which we prompt the student to reflect on and share aspects of their reading identity. Finally, we can pick read alouds that encourage conversations about reading identity, such as how students feel about themselves as readers and what makes them feel connected to a book.

Whether we are in person or virtual, nurturing students’ reading identities is a key component for successful, joyful instruction as well as the development of lifelong readers.  As a teacher recently reflected after collaborating with us to host Discovery Conferences, “I learned more about these students in five minutes of those conferences than I have the entire year.” When we invite students to reflect on how they construct themselves as readers, we give them the space to reveal insights that we can leverage into powerful possibilities for instruction. 


Chapman, J.  and Tunmer, W. (1995). Development of Young Children’s Reading     Self-Concepts: An Examination of Emerging Subcomponents and TheirRelationship With Reading Achievement. Journal in Educational Psychology, 87(1), 154-167.

Hall, L.A. (2012). The Role of Reading Identities and Reading Abilities in Students’ Discussions About Texts and Comprehension Strategies, Journal of Literacy Research, 44(3), 239-272.

Hall, L.A. (2010). The Negative Consequences of Becoming a Good Reader: Identity Theory as a Lens for Understanding Struggling Readers, Teachers, and Reading Instruction. Teachers College Record, 112(7), 1792-1829.

Ripp, Pernille (2018).  Passionate Readers: The Art of Reaching and Engaging Every ChildRoutledge: New York, NY.

Scoggin, J. and Schneewind, H. (2021).  Trusting Readers: Powerful Practices for Independent Reading.  Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH

Dr. Jennifer Scoggin has been a teacher, author, speaker, curriculum writer, and literacy consultant.  Jennifer’s interest in the evolving identities of both students and teachers and her growing obsession with children’s literature led her to and informs her work. 

Hannah Schneewind has been a teacher, staff developer, curriculum writer, keynote speaker and national literacy consultant. She brings with her over 25 years of experience to the education world. Hannah’s interest in student and teacher agency and her belief in the power of books informs her work with schools.

Together, Jen and Hannah are the co-creators of Trusting Readers (@TrustingReaders), a group dedicated to collaborating with teachers to design high quality literacy opportunities that invite all students to be engaged and to thrive as readers and writers.

In the Zone: Time for Independent Reading

By Lynne R Dorfman

There are many reasons why we should give our students daily time to read on their own. Daily independent reading time provides the opportunity for students to experiment with and develop the skills and strategies that teachers demonstrate during the minilesson. Try to block out twenty minutes of independent reading daily, especially for upper elementary grades. You can always start with a smaller amount of time or adjust the time according to grade level needs and what might be sustainable for your students. If you begin with ten minutes and everyone is still reading at the end of that time, try giving the class an additional five minutes. This block of time allows students to enter what Atwell calls “the reading zone” – that space in time when students get “lost in a book” and are not aware of the passing of time (The Reading Zone: How to Help Kids Become Skilled, Passionate, Habitual, Critical Readers, 2016). 

Establishing the Reading Habit

It is during daily independent reading time that students build stamina and endurance for reading. This is particularly important for our striving readers. Of course, opportunities to read across the day include guided reading lessons, science and social studies time and more. Many teachers assign some amount of independent reading as homework each night. Our challenged readers do not rush home from school to curl up with a good book. We cannot be sure they are actually doing any reading at home. It’s understandable that busy parents may sign reading logs without really checking in with their children. But if we build in time to read independently at school, we can help students find a good book (if they need that help) and observe readerly behaviors to help them become more skilled at being a proficient reader.  Independent reading block is a time for students to consciously and subconsciously practice the strategies and skills they’ve learned in minilessons, and it’s the time when teachers are differentiating instruction through roving conferences and small-group instruction. In Good Choice!: Supporting Independent Reading and Response K-6, author/educator Tony Stead reminds us that when we create “a time for independent reading from the onset of the school year, children not only build up stamina for reading, but also see it as an important and pleasurable component of their daily lives (2008, 5).”  In part, our students learn to read by reading. With access to a wonderful classroom and school library and daily time to read books they select to read, students will grow as readers and develop a lifelong reading habit.

 Anchor Charts for Reflection

Independent reading time is sacred time in the reader’s workshop. It is the specific time set aside for children to engage in reading books they have chosen for their own purpose. Setting this expectation is important. Taking the time in the beginning of the year to help children understand the work they will do during this time, and how, will help you accomplish your goals for this time and increase student independence in the workshop. You might consider bringing the class together to create an anchor chart that lists what the reading workshop looks like, sounds like, and feels like. For children who have had workshop experience, this exercise reminds them of reading habits that have been used successfully in previous classrooms. It becomes a place to begin and can be added to throughout the year. Children who are newer to a workshop format will need more time and teacher modeling to learn habits that increase reading stamina and reading focus. One strategy for grades 1 – 3 is to send them off to read independently for 15 minutes. After 15 minutes, the class can regroup on the floor or at their seats to create an anchor chart of actions that has helped their independent reading time and of actions that has hindered their reading time. This chart can be posted as a reminder of what they as a class have determined were the expectations for independent reading time. The children become the standard setters and have ownership of this time. 

Building Stamina is Key

Helping children read independently for extended periods of time is one goal for the workshop. Jennifer Serravallo reminds us in her book The Reading Strategies Book: Your Everything Guide to Developing Skilled Readers (Heinemann, 2015) if children are not reading during independent reading time they will not make the progress we are hoping for and working for. “Engagement is everything.” (pg. 44) Helping children increase their stamina – the amount of time children can sustain their reading – becomes part of the work done in independent reading time. Children need realistic time expectations and strategies to help them increase their reading stamina. These strategies become procedural mini-lessons, small group instruction opportunities, or individual conference focus points. 

Strategies to build stamina can range from finding a smart place to read in order to concentrate to figuring out your next steps. If you’re planning to read for research purposes, then you are thoughtfully gathering your tools and resources to sustain stamina for the work at hand. One strategy you might try is creating a class graph that shows the number of minutes the class read during independent reading time. Children will see the bars grow over time and feel their success as a community of readers. Older children are able to keep their own graphs. These children are often capable of noting specifically the number of minutes they were actually reading and when they were engaged in an activity that took their eyes off the text. (For example, when they were engaged in creating a written response, a book club discussion, or small group instruction.) Reading the graph and drawing conclusions from the data is important and could be used to set class goals as well as individual goals. Ask children to record the number of minutes they read at home. Setting a specific amount of time for your students is a way to start and be sure to tell them, “I expect you to read at home.” As the year progresses, remove the specific amount of time and just ask your students to record how many minutes of reading was done at home and the number of pages. This information is valuable and can be used to discuss stamina progress with students, book choices, and places to read. Keeping track of time and page numbers can help children see their stamina grow. 

One more thought about stamina. Not all kids can sit for extended periods of time — they need to move! We need to set reasonable and realistic goals for the group of children we are teaching. But there will always be the child who needs more specific strategies. Teaching students what to do when they lose focus is important to maintaining reading time. In a conference, establish a time frame for taking a break while reading independently. Giving students a set amount of time to read and establishing a signal system for movement helps you maintain your conferring schedule. It may also keep these need-to-stretch-and-move students reading for most of the allotted independent reading time. In the beginning a goal could be 10 minutes of reading with a quick standing stretch. Helping children recognize when they start to lose their reading focus, and giving them strategies to re-enter the text, is a way to increase their stamina as well as focus. Teach students to place sticky notes in the text to indicate where to stop reading and make a comment, ask a question, create a quick sketch, offer an opinion, or make a prediction. When students learn how to self-monitor, they can make good decisions. For example, some students may realize that their book choice often hinders their reading stamina and ability to focus on the text. These students should learn when to abandon a book in favor of another and how to choose books more appropriate for their interests and reading level. Examining a child’s reading habits; location, time, and book choice can help you and the child create goals that will increase stamina and bring greater joy to independent reading time. 

What the Teacher is Doing

Kid-watching or information gathering (Goodman and Owocki, 2002) can be about students’ progress, understanding, strengths and challenges, cooperation, reading habits, and attitude. Most of the time will be spent in observing students’ readerly behavior and noting it while you are clipboard cruising. During the first six to ten minutes of independent reading time, everyone is silent. As you circulate, you can observe students who are flipping back to reread or review information or the storyline events or who are staring at one page for a long period of time. Some readers may jot notes or write in their response journals. You may notice certain students who move quickly through their pile of selected books, from one to the other, without ever really reading any of them. Others will be deeply engrossed in one book and stay with it all week or even for a two-week period until it is finished.  You may start to understand that some students are engaged in “fake reading” – simply turning pages to be compliant. Others “read” the illustrations and text features. Jot important observations on sticky notes and transfer to an electronic file or notebook when you have a chance, preferably that same day.  Your notebook can have two columns – one for the sticky note(s) and date and the other column for you to translate into possible minilessons for the whole group, opportunities to extend learning through small group instruction, or future reading goals. Kid watching also leads to other work a teacher does to differentiate instruction during independent reading time – the work of conferring and feedback.

The Heart of Reading Workshop

We value reading. As readers ourselves we look for extended times to sit and read. This is something we strive to give our students in the workshop setting. Some of you will remember the Sustained Silent Reading practice (SSR) or Drop Everything and Read (DEAR time). You may have experienced this as a student or perhaps have taught using this practice. In a classroom that practices SSR, children read for extended periods of time from a book of their choice and so does the teacher. In a readers’ workshop, independent reading time offers more than just reading time. In a workshop approach, you will see teachers observing the readerly behavior of their students, conferring, and offering feedback. You may see a teacher interrupt her independent readers to deliver a mid-workshop teaching point or offer praise to spur them on.  Teachers will sometimes guide or model the book selection process (when it is necessary), monitor use of skills and strategies, teach small groups, hold roving conferences, and help their readers set goals. This work happens during independent reading time… the time every student can get “lost in the zone” reading something they love. Independent reading time. This is the heart of reading workshop.


Atwell, Nancie and Ann Atwell Merkel. 2016. The Reading Zone: How to Help Kids Become Skilled, Passionate, Habitual, Critical Readers. 2nd ed. Scholastic Professional Books.

Goodman, Yetta and Gretchen Owocki. 2001.  Kidwatching: Documenting Children’s Literacy Development 1st Ed. Heinemann. 

Serravallo, Jennifer. 2015. The Reading Strategies Book; Your Everything Guide to Developing Skilled Readers. Heinemann.

Stead, Tony. 2008. Good Choice!: Supporting Independent Reading and Response K-6. Stenhouse.

Lynne R. Dorfman is an independent literacy consultant and an adjunct professor for Arcadia University. She enjoys her role as a co-editor for PAReads: Journal of Keystone State Literacy Association. Lynne has co-authored many books for Stenhouse Publishers, including Welcome to Writing Workshop: Engaging Today’s Students with a Model That Works and Mentor Texts: Teaching Writing Through Children’s Literature, K-6. Her latest manuscript, Welcome to Reading Workshop with Brenda Krupp, will be published in 2022.  Lynne enjoys writing poetry, taking her Welsh Corgis for walks, and planting flowers. She often vacations on Long Beach Island and Niagara-on-the-Lake. Lynne is planning a trip to Boulder, Colorado in 2022 with her husband and dear friends. She cannot wait!