Humanizing the Teaching of Reading: Toward More Transformational and Humane Practices

By Vicki Vinton and Maria Nichols

Like many of you, we began hearing rumors last March that schools might shut down because of a virus sweeping over the country. At that point we couldn’t begin to imagine the full scope of the disruption, devastation and death the pandemic would bring, but we each did begin to find emails in our inboxes postponing or cancelling work we had scheduled—and at some point, in an attempt to make sense of what was happening and to know that we weren’t alone, we reached out to each other and began a journey of thought that continues to this day.

In those first early days, huddled together on Zoom, we talked about supporting teachers and schools as they moved to virtual learning. But we’d scarcely settled on meeting dates and tentative questions to explore when our world errupted again with the murder of George Floyd, which shook us out of our “how do we support literacy as we know it,” focus and led us instead to listen to voices like Bettina Love, who talked about abolitionist teaching, and Sonja Cherry-Paul who challenged us to be “the new architects of school.”

All of this convinced us that a return to normal could no longer be our goal. Instead, we wanted to be voices for transformative change, which, in the words of David Kirkland, recognizes that “Teachers are human rights workers, and our classrooms are progressive vineyards thirsty for liberation’s laborers.”

This wasn’t a difficult shift for us to make, as we’d both been questioning many commonly accepted literacy practices for years. We’d also both been advocating for change, as we believed that the goal of literacy instruction should not just be ensuring students’ mastery of skills, as demonstrated through test scores, but should tap into the deeper, more meaningful aspects of reading and being a reader, which we found was best articulated by writers. 

Ursula LeGuin, for example, believed that “We read books to find out who we are. What other people, real or imaginary, do and think and feel is an essential guide to our understanding of what we ourselves are and may become.” And, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley advocated for what he called a “moral imagination,” which we see as a capacity to occupy another mind and feel the emotional pulse of another heart, which reading can support. And that led us to think about whether we had experienced that, ourselves, as children.

I, Vicki, keenly remember reading The Phantom Tollbooth, a book that was given to me by friends of my parents, which I’ve kept all these years. I remember being put off by Milo at first. But as I kept reading about Milo’s adventures in the strange, confusing world he found himself in, I began to realize that he was changing – that indeed, humans could change. They could become kinder, braver, and more helpful, as they started doing things they never thought they could, which I found enormously comforting. And it made me want to become a kinder, braver and more helpful person.

As for me, Maria, the Betsy series by Carolyn Haywood was an early childhood favorite. Oddly, I had all but forgotten that little girl with the brown pigtails until a random day in the school library with my first graders.  I was pursuing shelves, hunting for an unexpected literary gem, when a very worn red spine caught my attention: a copy of B is For Betsy!  As I thumbed through the musty, fragile pages, memories of Saturday trips to the library with my mom, long afternoons with nothing to do but read, and nights under the covers with books and a flashlight came flooding back. Through this favored series, I had bonded with Betsy, learning to face childhood fears through the comfort of family, true friends, contagious kindness, and the superpower of red ribbons and plaid bookbags. Truly, Betsy helped me construct ways of being as I went out into the world.

As we reflected on these memories, we found ourselves thinking about something else Bettina Love had said: “Why,” she asked, “had it taken a pandemic to see the humanity of all children?” This opened our eyes to the humanity in our own process.  We recognized that we had been privileged to have access to texts that helped us see ourselves and create a vision of the people we wanted to be. But, we were also aware that we were able to do that without having been taught to “read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it,” or to “determine central ideas of themes of text.” Instead, we  did these things by connecting with and being moved by the humanity of a character in a book, in a way that helped us become more humane, too. And believing that every child is capable of being moved and thinking deeply, just as we had been, we found ourselves thinking that the transformative change we longed for was a shift from a system based on standardization to one focused on humanization. But what would humanizing the teaching and learning of reading look like?

Before the pandemic, we’d already been asking educators to consider making some key shifts in their practice, which we realized, as we kept talking on Zoom, served the purpose of humanizing classrooms. For instance, 

  • Shifting from what we saw as a pedagogy of right-answerism to inviting students to think, explore and develop their own ideas.
  • Shifting from being a deliverer of content (like comprehension strategies, standards and skills) to becoming a facilitator of student thinking.
  • Shifting from seeing confusion as something to be fixed to seeing it as the place where learning and thinking often starts.
  • Shifting from seeing learning as something that can be achieved in a single period to seeing it as a much more complex and messy process.
  • And, shifting from listening to students in order to assess them to listening in order to better understand their thinking.

These shifts all supported our shared belief that, given the gift of time for students to engage in that messy process, they not only have the ability to intellectually grapple with complexity—they crave it. And to see the effects of these humanizing shifts in action, here’s a conference Vicki had with a seventh grader named Yusef whose class was reading “The Lottery,” Shirley Jackson’s short story about village that, for reasons none of the villagers remember, holds a lottery every year and stones the winner to death.

Yusef had been labeled as a struggling reader, and while many of his classmates jumped into “The Lottery,” Yusef was having a hard time just getting to the third paragraph. When Vicki sat next to him, he pushed the text as far away on his desk as he could, and when she asked if he was wondering anything, he simply said, “This story’s too weird.” 

Vicki could have responded in any number of ways, but committed to listening to understand, she leaned into his reaction and asked if he could give her an example of the story’s weirdness, and with that he pulled the story back and accusingly pointed to the second line of the story’s second paragraph: 

“The children assembled first, of course. School was recently over for the summer, and the feeling of liberty sat uneasily on most of them; they tended to gather together quietly for a while before they broke into boisterous play, and their talk was still of the classroom and the teacher, of books and reprimands. Bobby Martin had already stuffed his pockets full of stones, and the other boys soon followed his example, selecting the smoothest and roundest stones [to make] a great pile of stones in one corner of the square and guarded it against the raids of the other boys.”

“Right there,” Yusef said. “That’s weird. They just got out of school and it’s like they don’t like it. Man, when I get out of school for the summer, the last thing I want to do is talk about it.”

Here again, listening to understand—and probing student’s thinking without judgment—can reveal surprises. Vicki learned that Yusef’s disengagement with the text wasn’t because it was too hard for him. He just didn’t know how to use his response to engage with the text. And so the first thing she did was validate his response by acknowledging that that was pretty weird. Then she asked if he’d noticed anything else that seemed weird, and he answered, “Yeah, what’s with the stones?”

If you know “The Lottery,” you may be thinking just what Vicki thought: that despite being labeled as struggling, Yusef actually was quite an astute reader who was unaware of that. But noticing and naming could help him begin to see that, so she told Yusef what he’d done: He’d noticed what seems to be a pattern of weirdness, with kids not doing what they usually do, and another pattern around the stones. Then she connected that to the larger work of reading and writing: Writers often use patterns to try to show us something they don’t want to come right out and say, and I think it’s possible that the writer actually wants you to pick up all this weirdness and is inviting you to figure out why she put it there. “Hmm. . .,” Yusef muttered, as Vicki gathered her things. Just before she left the classroom, she turned to look back and saw Yusef reading.

As we began sharing stories from our work with students in conferences, small groups and read alouds, we began to brainstorm what we started calling humanizing strategies. Unlike comprehension strategies, these weren’t meant to be explicitly taught to students. Rather they were strategies for helping teachers create more humane and equitable cultures in their classrooms. We broke them into categories, like these examples:

Strategies that can help students take risks with their thinking:

  • Unless it’s clearly needed, model who to be vs. what to do, like being someone who’s curious and sometimes confused but who notices things and wonders about them.
  • Trust and don’t rush the process of meaning-making—or, as Walt Whitman said, “Be curious, not judgmental.
  • Use conditional language, like what might or could something mean vs. does.

Strategies that can help teachers facilitate the often messy process of meaning making through talk:

  • Be invitational by asking questions like, “What are you thinking?” or “Is anyone wondering something?”
  • Encourage multiple voices by asking questions like “Does anyone have a different idea?”
  • Normalize confusion as something every reader experiences and invite students to share what’s confusing them.
  • Help students develop a sense of agency by asking how they figured out something that had confused them or that the writer hadn’t explicitly stated.
  • Honor students’ tentative thinking, even if you suspect that what they said won’t pan out.
  • Help students see that readers revise, just as writers do, by asking if they noticed anything that gave them a new idea or changed their thinking
  • Pay attention to students’ expressions and body language, as often there’s thinking behind smirks, grimacing or laughter.

Finally, as we reflect on the whole of this journey, we recognize that all the shifts and strategies we so strongly believe in had the same intention: They were meant to respect and honor students’ intellectual capacities, feelings, and humanity.  Perhaps a critical part of transformative change is recognizing that we all want to be seen, heard, and respected – as readers, as thinkers, as human beings.    

Maria Nichols is a literacy consultant and author working internationally with teachers, districts and industry consortiums. Her work includes 33 years with the San Diego Unified School District, where she served as a classroom and demonstration teacher, literacy coach, and the Director of School Innovation. Maria is the author of Comprehension Through Conversation (Heinemann 2006), Talking About Texts (Shell 2008), Expanding Comprehension with Multigenre Text Sets (Scholastic 2009), and Building Bigger Ideas: A Process For Teaching Purposeful Talk (Heinemann, 2019). Her frequent presentations at conferences convey her belief in agentive, engaging learning
for adults and children alike.

Vicki Vinton is a literacy consultant and award-winning writer who works with teachers, schools and districts across the country and around the world.  She is the author of Dynamic Teaching for Deeper Reading: Shifting to a Problem-Based Approach (Heinemann, 2017) and the co-author of What Readers Really Do: Teaching the Process of Meaning Making (Heinemann, 2012) and The Power of Grammar: Unconventional Approaches to the Conventions of Language (Heinemann, 2015). As a frequent presenter at state, national and international events, Vicki brings a passion for thinking and learning and a love of language and books to every setting she works in. 

A Reflection on Cultivating Genius

By Vince Puzick

Note: I emailed Hollyanne Bates (CCIRA’s blog curator) on January 1, 2021 to ask if I could submit a blog about our current “book study.” Like many of you, I have read and re-read Gholdy Muhammad’s Cultivating Genius: An Equity Framework for Culturally and Historically Responsive Literacy over the past several months. I envisioned writing a blog focused on identity and equity and to invite CCIRA members to email me with your reflections in May for a blog to close out the book study. Then, January 6, 2021 happened.

Gholdy Muhammad writes, “I define text as anything that can be read – both print texts and nonprint texts. Society members were reading print texts but they were also reading the world as texts (Freire and Macedo, 1987). They read images and the social times as texts” (emphasis mine, 33). 

And, oh my. We have been handed a lot to read when we consider the current images and the present social times as texts. 

We are inundated with competing voices, multiple perspectives, hostile rhetoric, and (occasionally?) reasoned argument. Our screens load visual images that have us questioning, and maybe leave us anxious and unnerved. 

I have immersed myself these past few days in considering Muhammad’s concept of criticality: “Criticality enables us to question both the world and the texts within it to better understand the truth in history, power, and equity” (117).  We must interrogate the world and its texts. Passive, disengaged consumption of texts is not enough. It has never been enough. But today, students must “interrogate the world not only to make sense of injustice but also to work toward social transformation” (120).

It’s a tall order.  

Gholdy Muhammad’s definition offered at the beginning of her book stayed with me each time I re-read:  “Literacy is not just about reading words on the page… Reading and writing are transformative acts that improve self and society” (emphasis mine, page 9).

When I embrace the idea that literacy is a “transformative act,” and when I broaden the definition of text to include “anything that can be read,” her Framework rises to a whole new level of importance beyond another “literacy framework” focused on decoding and comprehension of complex texts.

If I truly believe – and I do – that authentic literacy empowers students, then in what ways will I think and act as an educator? I hold Muhammad’s statement to be true:  “Teachers must ask if they will be transformed by the learning as they expect and want students to be transformed” (emphasis mine, 78). 

The classroom must be a transactional environment as well as a transformative one: “Criticality does not believe in hierarchies in teaching and learning” (122). What instructional decisions do I make to disrupt that hierarchy? What does classroom discussion look and sound like? What texts are students reading – and who is making the decision for those texts? And what criteria drive those decisions? 

I am a learner within a community of learners as I work with students in the interrogation of the texts in front of them – print, nonprint, visual, oral, and digital. Further, I learn the identities of my students: identities as readers, identities in cultural contexts, in historical contexts, and in the context of an educational system that has not served all of our students in equitable and meaningful ways. 

Ultimately, at this moment in time marked by anxiety, uncertainty, and fear, I understand Gholdy Muhammad’s declaration that “Who we are is connected to historical, institutional, political, and sociocultural factors” (69). 

If teachers are to be “transformed by the learning,” then we must center student voices; we must honor and value all that they bring to the classroom. We must read and listen closely to learn “the realities and lived experiences of persons experiencing the moment, which equally contribute to the same narrative” (120). 

We are, all of us, connected to, and can be connected through, this moment in time.

I invite you to share your reflections and responses to Gholdy Muhammad’s Cultivating Genius: An Equity Framework for Culturally and Historically Responsive Literacy.  My goal is to gather many (if not all?) of your responses in a blog later in the spring. Email your thoughts to and please, for ease in gathering, use “Cultivating Genius” in the subject line.  

Vince Puzick served in public education for over 32 years as a college composition instructor, high school English teacher, and K-12 content specialist in literacy and language arts. He now provides professional development in standards-based curriculum design and instructional practice.  When the weather is nice (which is every day), he is fly fishing on one of Colorado’s rivers and probably daydreaming. He is working on a series of literary nonfiction pieces tentatively titled Americana.  Vince lives in Colorado Springs with his wife, Jannetta, his daughter, two stepdaughters, a dog, and a cat named Trout.  

Because I Like It! The Humble Beginnings of a Lifelong Reader

By Kathy Collins

Will you take a moment to think of someone you admire as a reader? As you gather your thoughts, I’ll share mine: I immediately think of two long-time friends. One reads voraciously, as if they are satisfying hunger. They read widely across genres and topics; their critiques and opinions about books are compelling and thought-provoking, often affecting my perspective and my reading lists. They are also book pushers – recommending and passing along texts they’ve loved or that they think I’ll love. 

My other person COMMITS  – for him, reading is laborious and requires enormous focus, but even so, he makes time for it and reads deeply about anything of interest. Coyotes – he read so much in a short time that he has become a cocktail party coyote expert. Medieval Japan? He’s read on this topic for years – something that has nothing to do with his daily life and everything to do with his curiosity. He says that the act of reading isn’t exactly pleasurable, but its results are rewarding.

So, now, who are the readers you admire? What are the characteristics you find admirable? 

I ask about this during certain workshops. As teachers turn to each other and share, we listen to stories about the best friend who goes to readings by every single author (emphasis on single) at the independent bookstore in her town, whether or not she has interest in the featured book, saying that’s how she makes her best discoveries (and potentially a love connection). We hear about people with self-driven reading pursuits and projects, like the teacher who shared that her wife wanted to build a deck on their house. She read every house magazine, blog, and resource on DIY deck design and building. 

We hear about the wide variety of social lives around reading, including stories of a grandma who has been faithful to the same bible study for fifty years, a big family who gifts already-read books when they get together for the holidays, and a couple who fell in love during their bookstore cafe courtship and created a ritual of seeking independent bookstores wherever they travel. But mostly, the reasons we admire others as readers are less Hollywood-ending or rom-com meet-cute. Often we admire others for the simple reason that they manage to read – like the teacher who shared the story of a colleague’s reveal: she hides out from her family in the guise of ‘using the bathroom’ which this teacher found admirable because it proved her valiant commitment to reading at least a little bit each day. 

Nobody has ever shared their admiration for their best friend’s SAT score. Nobody has talked breathlessly about their husband’s reading level or their sister-in-law’s self-correction ratio. I’ve never heard anyone say they admire a colleague because they read super-hard books nor has anyone expressed awe for a neighbor who is fabulous at predicting. Nobody has ever named a lover who has amazing reading stamina. Actually, come to think of it, nobody in my workshops has ever even said “lover.”

When I work in pre-school to middle school classrooms, I’ll sneak moments here and there to ask children a version of the question, “Who is a reader you admire, and why?” Again, I’ve collected responses, and here are the kinds that tend to recur. (Fig. 1.2)

The differences between the children’s responses and those of adults are revealing. While adults tend to appreciate characteristics of a person’s reading life and reading habits, the kids seem to admire readers based on their perceptions of reading strength and skill, characteristics that are, in some ways, more quantitative: reading speed; book level; page count, and test scores. Children also reveal their sensitivity to and awareness of who’s getting what kind of instruction, who’s being hauled off for extra reading help, and who’s praised or left unnoticed by the teacher. Finally, children often admire another based on what kind of book they’re reading- the more chapters and pages, the more to admire.

It’s rare for a child to name a characteristic they appreciate about someone else’s reading life, the way they think about texts, or their habits around reading. Children’s responses reflect what they believe is valued in school and suggest that so much of our reading instruction is focused on how to read, skill-wise, and most of what kids know and admire about each other is what they read, level-wise.

There’s another question that I ask teachers at the beginning of certain presentations. I’ll ask them to take a moment to think of something they’ve read that continues to matter to them in some way.

Teachers’ responses often include texts or characters from books that have had been instructive or helpful at particular moments in their lives. For example, one teacher named three titles she has read over a stretch of time – a novel, a memoir, and a self-help/affirmations type of book – that deal with the death of a partner because that’s her ongoing journey. Another teacher asked if songs count and said she has a playlist of songs with lyrics that have spoken to her in different times in her life. Someone talked about how a particular book changed how she viewed her twin brother’s wife and has had a profound and lasting effect on their relationship…for the better. 

Adults often cite texts that remind them of a time in their lives. For example, one teacher named DaVinci Code, explaining that she wasn’t usually attracted to that genre or type of book. It was left behind in a youth hostel where she was staying. She read it, just because it was there. Now, years later, every time she thinks of the book or hears a reference to it, she is immediately transported to a time in her life when she was unencumbered, traveling on her own, seeing the world. Another teacher named his grandmother’s old-timey cookbook, saying that he keeps the cookbook because it’s full of his grandmother’s margin jots about the recipes. This book matters to him because it connects him to her. As you might expect, when I’m in classrooms, I’ll ask children, “What’s a book that really matters to you, that sticks with you, and why?”  Here are some responses that are most typical:

Although this is certainly not a scientific study, I can vouch that a large number of children just don’t know what to say or how to answer, or at least they don’t have the title or recollection of a text of personal significance right there on the tip of their tongues. When children do name books, they often cite the one they are currently reading in school.

Children’s responses about significant books are, again, qualitatively different from what adults say. Please know that in highlighting the contrast, I am not belittling children’s responses. Nor do I expect (or hope) a six year-old will respond like a sixteen year-old, or a sixteen year old will respond like a sixty-year old. A child’s unfiltered response is worthy of our respect and consideration, as is. The important reason to attend to the contrast in responses between adults and children when asked about texts of significance is because of what it reveals about children’s understandings of the purpose of books and other texts and act of reading. 

Most grown-ups tend to name texts that have insinuated themselves into their lives, even though these texts may have been read long ago. Usually, adults name texts that matter because they inform or inspire, provoke or evoke, challenge or comfort, transport or affirm, and so on. 

Many children, especially in elementary school grades, name books that epitomize an achievement, and by this, I mean books that show off reading growth with respect to level or reading status. One story this tells us is that for a great many children, the primary function of books is to serve as ladder steps enabling them to climb to higher levels, and what they (and the adults around them) value is the level or the achievement more than the impact that book had in their lives. Another story this might tell is that children haven’t yet had time and space in the rush through curriculum and frenzied scramble through levels to even consider significance or what it feels like when a book really matters. That would require a bit of slowing down and lingering. Who’s got time for that?!

Another story children seem to internalize about what makes a book significant is that the harder the book, the better the book and, therefore, the better the reader. There is status and an intellectual aura conferred upon children who, for example, read chapter books in early grades, who read thick, page-dense books in upper grades, and who read edgy or content-mature books in middle school.

If these are the reasons books matter to kids, well, then these reasons matter, partly because they illuminate how important it is for our instruction and our classroom environment to provide opportunities for children to internalize more and varied stories about Reading Lives and about how engaged readers pursue, acknowledge, and hold on to texts that matter to them.

One of the stories that seems to be missing, for many kids, is that text significance lies not in the size or level or page count of the text they’re reading, but in the effect the text has on them, the response it inspires, the human connections it forges, the understandings it facilitates, the empathies it enables, or, simply, the way a text, a character, a series can become part of or change the stories of their lives. 

I want to be clear, though. It’s not that we need to expect many six year-olds to say that Knuffle Bunny matters to them because it’s an incisive commentary on personal responsibility, nor for ten-year olds to say that The Diary of a Wimpy Kid opened their eyes to the idea of white male mediocrity. Instead, something we can hope for is that children can name books that matter to them, and when asked why, children will declare, with enthusiasm:

“Because I Like It” is not to be underestimated.

When children say a book matters to them because they like it, it may sound like a quick, simplistic, superficial response, and, as a consequence, it’s undervalued. But the truth is that being able to name texts one likes is the necessary and humble beginning to becoming someone who chooses to read, has favorite texts and authors, and identifies as a reader. ‘Because I like it’ books and other texts can be the launch point of an activity, passion, hobby, inquiry, vocation or habit that can grow big and important in one’s life. 

It’s worth our teaching time to nurture children’s dispositions to fall in love with texts, authors, genres, series, and so on. In addition, it’s also vital to provide opportunities for children to articulate why they love a particular thing as well as the process for how they fell in love with it. When kids’ processes for falling for a text are shared out loud, the act of falling for a text is more easily or likely to be replicated with another text or by another child. 

In 2007, 2012 and again in 2017, the National Endowment for the Arts released a report including data about adult pleasure reading habits, which Dana Gioia, then Chairperson of the NEA, described as “the most complete and up-to-date report of the nation’s reading trends, and perhaps more important – their considerable consequences.” (2007).

The report does several things. Drawing from data gathered from many different sources and studies, it details a story about reading volume and reading proficiency among the nation’s adult population. I want to acknowledge that these points are debatable if we stretch the definition of reading from a narrow focus on reading words to also include reading visual texts, and when we expand the boundaries of reading terrain from book reading and literary texts to include on-line content, alternatives to books, and texts that are not considered literary. Furthermore, we have to ask who is defining reading proficiency, and the corollary question, who benefits from the definition? Finally, it’s important to keep in mind that a report compiled in 2007 or even 2012 couldn’t possibly include comprehensive data about digital reading habits associated with tablets and smart phones and other devices, the impact of social media on reading, and adults’ interactions with the newer text types, including memes, gifs, posts, blogs, tweets, quick videos, etc. In any case, the volume and proficiency of adult readers (and associated debates around these matters) are not the parts of the report that I will focus on.

The report shares correlations between adults’ pleasure reading, also referred to as voluntary reading, and its relationship with other measures of adult lives.  According to the data, there are clear indications of the importance of having a voluntary/pleasure reading life as an adult and the potential consequences of not having one.

Mr. Gioia writes, “Whether or not people read, and indeed how much and how often they read, affects their lives in crucial ways.” According to the NEA study, engaging in pleasure/voluntary reading as adults correlates with several things, including academic and economic success, more participation in cultural activities and events, higher civic engagement, and, wait for it, increased exercise!

I want to acknowledge two things. First, that old saying, “correlation does not mean causation” needs to be applied here. In other words, just because data show that having a pleasure-reading life correlates to more civic engagement, it doesn’t mean that pleasure-reading is the cause of civic engagement, or that participating in the civic life of one’s community is caused by reading for pleasure. 

I’m sure we all know people in our lives who may not read for pleasure but who regard voting as a sacred act; or someone who would never choose to read, given an hour of free time, but who performs as a mime every weekend in a local park and who co-founded the International Organization of Juggling Mimes in Parks – or something artsy like that.

Obviously, having a pleasure reading life isn’t the singular pre-requisite for civic engagement, cultural event participation, exercise, or higher salaries. It’s just that a pleasure reading life strongly correlates with these things among survey respondents, which included thousands of adults of varied race, ethnicity, socioeconomic levels, educational attainment, and so on.

So, my read on this report goes like this: Sure, the report is a decade old, and yes, there are likely to be some reliability and validity issues, as there are for many studies, but it makes TOTAL COMMON SENSE to me that reading for pleasure can be important to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities. And, by the way, I still can’t get over the surprising correlation between pleasure reading and more exercise! 

When kids have lots of experiences with texts they like and when they find pleasure in the act of reading, it stands to reason that as they grow up, they’ll be more likely to be an adult pleasure reader. This may increase the chance that they’ll be an awesome citizen and neighbor, healthy and active, and involved and connected with their community in a number of ways. Maybe that’s just me dreaming the dream. I acknowledge that I have no ‘science of reading’ data to back this up, but I know that reading for pleasure can’t hurt and certainly can help our children’s reading lives. As Sharon Murphy writes, ““When pleasure and reading are companions, we know very well that children become engaged readers and are likely to continue to read throughout their lives. (2012)”

So, children’s regular expressions of “BECAUSE I LIKE IT” in reference to texts and to the act of reading are not simply a bonus outcome or fringe benefit of our reading instruction. Instead, “BECAUSE I LIKE IT” must be a constant inspiration and steady companion to our instruction, standing tall alongside beside the Big Three of our instruction: Reading with Accuracy (decoding skills), Reading with Fluency (fluency skills) and Reading with Meaning (comprehension skills). Here’s to adding Reading With Pleasure and creating a Big Four.

Our world might very well be better for it.

(This is an excerpt of a chapter from Whole Readers (working title) Stenhouse Publishing, 2021.)

Some “Because I Like It” Book Resources:


Murphy, Sharon. (2012) “Reclaiming Pleasure in the Teaching of Reading.” Language Arts, v89 n5 p318-328 May 2012

National Endowment for the Arts. To Read or Not To Read: A Question of National Consequence. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts, 2007. 

Kathy Collins is coauthor with Matt Glover of the Heinemann title I Am Reading. Kathy is the beloved author of Growing Readers as well as Reading for Real. She presents at conferences and works in schools all over the world to support teachers in developing high-quality, effective literacy instruction in the elementary school grades. Kathy has worked closely with the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project at Columbia University, and she was a first grade teacher in Brooklyn, New York.

The Top 5 Blog Posts of 2020

by Hollyanna Bates

CCIRA has been here for educators for over 50 years. There have been many challenges along the way, but CCIRA has remained strong. This past year has been full of surprises and innovation as educators navigate new ways of working with students using remote platforms. Through the pandemic, CCIRA is here, ready to connect you to professional networks and to provide access to quality professional development.

Photo courtesy of Ryan Johns via Unsplash.

Our blog has been providing quick and easy PD since its inception three years ago. Educators across the country subscribe and often repost on social media channels. Each year our readership grows, expanding the reach of CCIRA. The posts this year have been some of the best. There has been a steady stream of thoughtful and helpful responses to teaching online. Below you will find the Top 5 Blog Posts of 2020, listed by order of popularity.

1. Reading in a Pandemic: How Did It Suddenly Become So Difficult? by Carol Jago

2. The Fab 4 Comprehension Strategies: Accelerating Reading NOW! by Lori Oczcus

3. An Essential Tools for All Readers by Gail Boushey and Alison Behne

4. Who Will Sound the Alarm by Lester Laminack

5. Entering Stories Through Mood by Trevor Bryan

Conferring with Mentor Texts

By Carl Anderson

I love to have writing conferences with students!  In these 1:1 conversations with students, which we have when we teach writing onsite or online, we’re best able to differentiate instruction, meet students’ varied needs, and get to know them as writers and people.  For all these reasons, conferences are the most important teaching we do in writing workshop. 

I especially love writing conferences in which I use mentor texts to teach the craft of writing—for example, how write effective leads, how to transition from one part to another, or how to write precise, beautiful details.  A mentor text is a well-written text that we show students to help them see how they can craft their own writing.   Mentor texts can be published texts by well-known authors, texts we’ve written ourselves, or texts written by students.

It’s important to teach with mentor texts in conferences for several reasons.  Mentor texts help students envision the craft moves they can make when they’re drafting and revising.  They help students understand that reading is central to the act of writing, because when we teach with mentor texts, students learn to “read like writers,” a kind of close reading in which writers notice how writers craft their writing.  And mentor texts help us teach effectively, too.  When we teach with a mentor text, we’re able to teach descriptively, instead of prescriptively.

How can you confer with mentor texts, or improve the way that you’re already conferring with them?  Here are some of steps you can take to do this important kind of teaching.

Preparing for Craft Conferences

Unlike mini-lessons and small groups, where you know what you’re teaching beforehand and have already selected which mentor text you’re going to use in the lesson, when you begin a conference, you don’t know exactly what you’ll teach students—and, if it’s going to be a craft conference, which mentor text you’ll use.  This means that you’ll need to prepare differently for conferences, so you’re ready to teach one of a wide variety of craft techniques.   

You’ll prepare for craft conferences by assembling a stack of mentor texts, and having them with you when you confer. Usually, a stack contains 3-4 different texts.  You won’t need more than that because each of the texts in the stack will enable you teach many different craft techniques.  Together, a stack of 3-4 texts will contain many craft techniques.

Photo courtesy of Unsplash.

The First Part of the Conference 

In the first part of a conference, your job is to discover what kind of writing work a student is doing as a writer.  You’ll do this by beginning conferences with an open-ended question, like “How’s it going?” or “What are you doing today as a writer?”  In some conferences, you’ll find out that students are working on an aspect of process—finding a topic to write about, planning a draft, revising or editing.   In others, you’ll learn that students are working on an aspect of craft—they’re figuring out the structure of their piece, using punctuation to create voice, or writing an ending, etc.  When you discover that a student is doing craft work, you’ll know right away that you’ll be teaching with a mentor text.

The Second Part of the Conference

Once you know that the conference will focus on an aspect of craft, you have to do some quick thinking.  You need to decide what to teach, and then select which mentor text you’ll use, all in a few moments.

To do this, you’ll:

  1. Read the student’s writing and ask yourself, “What does this student know so far about doing the kind of craft work?”  That is, you’ll ask yourself about the partial understanding the student has of the work.
  2. To decide what to teach, ask yourself, “Considering what the child knows so far, what is a next step for them?”
  3. Finally, ask yourself, “Which mentor text in my stack shows this next step?”

The Third Part of the Conference

In the third part of a craft conference, you’ll teach the student how to craft their writing more effectively.  To do this, you might teach the student a new craft technique, or show them how to use a craft technique they’re already using even better.  

You’ll take several steps to teach with a mentor text:

  1. Start by naming the craft technique you’ll be teaching the student.
  1. Make the text visible to the student.  If you’re teaching onsite, place the mentor text in between you and student.  To share the text in a socially distanced way, use a document camera to project the text onto a nearby screen. If you’re teaching online, use your online platform’s “share screen” function to show students a JPG or PDF you made of the mentor text that you’ve placed on your computer’s desktop.  
  1. Name the author of the text.  Doing this helps students understand that an actual person wrote the text, one who crafted their writing in ways that students can learn from.
  1. Read aloud the part of the mentor text that contains the craft technique you’re teaching.  Hearing the technique read aloud helps students internalize the way it sounds.
  1. Describe the craft technique precisely.

Finding Good Mentor Texts

To confer with mentor texts, you’ll need to have a collection of them!  Start by taking stock of the texts you already have, and see which units of study you have enough texts for already (usually, a stack of 3-4 texts will be enough for a unit).  For the units for which you don’t have enough texts, it’s a good idea to make a stack ahead of time, so you aren’t scrambling to find texts while you’re in the middle of the unit.

You can find excellent mentor texts in several places:

  • Your classroom library will have many potential texts.
  • Ask colleagues to share the ones they use.
  • Ask your school librarian to help you find texts.
  • Look for collections of particular genres written for children.
  • Children’s magazines like Highlights and Time For Kids have a wide variety of texts in them.
  • Google “Sources of Mentor Texts”—you’ll immediately find several websites in which educators discuss their favorite mentor texts.

As you choose mentor texts for your collection, use these criteria:

  • Choose texts you love, so you’ll discuss them with enthusiasm and passion.
  • Select texts you think your students will be moved by in some way, so that students will want to see how the authors wrote the texts to cause these reactions.
  • Students should see themselves, as well their lives and interests, mirrored in the texts, which will help students be more interested in studying them—and be inspired to write about their lives and interests, as well.
  • The authors of your mentor texts should reflect the diversity of students in your classroom.  Students are more likely to develop identities as writers when they can see that authors of mentor texts are like them in important ways, such as gender, race, or ethnicity.
  • You see lots of craft techniques in the texts that you can teach your students, techniques that are in students’ “zones” as writers.


Carl Anderson is an internationally recognized expert in writing instruction for grades K-8.  He works as a consultant for schools and districts around the world.  Carl is the author of How’s It Going? A Practical Guide to Conferring with Student Writers, Assessing Writers, and A Teacher’s Guide to Writing Conferences K-8.  Look for his next book, A Teacher’s Guide to Mentor Texts K-5, in 2022.  Website:  www.  Twitter:  @Conferringcarl